I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ... · A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (2024)

I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (1)

El 214 922 /





Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And OthersA Guide to pance Production. "On With the Show."American Alliance for Health, Physical Education,Recreation, and Dince, Washington, D.C. National t.'Dance Association.8192p.American Alliance for, Health, Physical Education,Recreation and Dance, 1900 Association Drivt, Reston,VA 22091 (Stock,Number 243-26884; $8.95).

SP. Ot9 988

EDRS PRICE MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.DESCRIPTORS Applied' Music; *Clothing Design; Cultural Activities;'

*Dance; Lighting Design; *Production Techniques;Publicity; *Stages (Facilities); *Theater Arts;Theaters

IDENTIFIERS Audition (Theatrical)1; Rehearsals (Theater)

ABSTRACT,This publitation provides suggestions for school and

professional level dance program production. The firstrchaptercontains a brief history of twentieth century costumes and settings

Apfor dance. The second chapter discusses program planning, auditions,and rehearsals. Costunle design and cbastruction are covered in thethird and fourthchaptees. In the fifth chapter, aspects of musicalaccompaniment are considered, and lighting and color-are the subjectsof the sixth chapter. Chapter Seven provides guidelines for telicalproduction, including design, organization, scheduling, set-up,rehearsal, the performance, and striking the set after theperformance. The eighth chaptei deals wittpublixity efforts. A listof suggested music selections for dance so6res is included and rangesftom medieval and renaissance pieces to works of modern and jazzcoTposers...4FG)


*****************************;********************** c******,***A***** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best thatcan be made

from the original documents*********************i**********************************************f**


I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (2)

Published by theNational Dance Associationof the American Alliancefor Health, Physical Education,Recreation and Dance



a .








The document has reproduced asTorn the person or organ aeon

no( changes have been made to =proverePrOductiOn QuaftlY

Pants of new or owed,* stated el des docu-ment dnof necestraMy represent °Masi NIEposit.on or poky


W. L. Coopee"


"on with the show"



I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (3)



Elizabeth R. Hayes served as the editor and

coordinator of A Guide to Dance Production: "on

With the show": The American Alliance for

Health, Physical Education, Recreation and

Dance is indeed forturiate to have prominent

professionals, such as Ms. Hayes, that will

serve as ediiors on its publications.


Copyright © 1981The American Alliance for Health,

Physital Education, Recreation, and Dance1900 As lion Drive,Reston, Vir is 22091

Stock Nag, 243-26884ti


I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (4)


, .


Chapter II

,--- Contentsr . .

A BriefTiistory of 20th Century Costumes and.Seftings for DanceElizabeth R. Hayes


ter H... '

Preparing a Dance Concert. Program Planning, Auditions and Rehearsals 9Elizabeth R. Hayes



C 11\l ier Rilli

Designing the Co1J

stumes / , 15Elizabeth R. Hayes

1 i


Constructing the CostumesElizabeth R. Hayes

chapter VArranging the Accompaniment

Jon Scoville

Chapter VII

p Lighting the DanceKenneth White

Chapter MR

Staging,the ProductionKenneth White

Chapter V11.411

Publicizing the EventLee Anne Hartley

i About the Authors

Suggested Listening for Dance,





/ 255,




I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (5)



This publication has been written tcZaid the novitiate teacher who is faced withthe many problems involved in producing a dance program. It will also give dancestudents the knowle.1ge needed to prepare a dance p duction, to create theirdance costumes, to select and record their music, to mSk their own hght plots,and to.stage manage and business manage their shows. Th material is concernedwith solving problems of producing simple school program prod uctionsas well asprofessional productions.

The initial chap)e4r presents, in ca ule form.,.a historical survey of the majordevelopments in 'twentieth century ante theatre productioiA with particularreference to modern dance. As this c apter points out, ths staging of dance, aswell as the type of dances being presented, are in a constant state of flux, reflectivedf.the changing eras they represent. The needs of dance tomorrow will not be thesame as the needs of today. In spite of these conskant changes, it is hoped that theinformation provided herein will be sufficiently basic to be of value for some timeto come.

Speciarappreciation is expressed to Allel Ballif, forrherly of the Department ofDrama at Yale University and more recently director of Theatre138 in Salt LakeCity, and.to Linda Phillips, costumer for the Department of Ballet and ModernDance at the University of Utah, for valuable suggestions in costume design andconstruction, to John M. Wilson, Chairman of Danceat the University of Arizona,who gave of his time to re d portions of the manuscript and offer helpful com-1ments, and to Ann Mat ews, who created the illustrations for the chargersconcerning costte

I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (6)






..: b4a,Pter.h

A Brief History of20th Century Costumesand Settings for Dance

. Elizabeth R. Hayes,

N c. . ,

On the day that Ispora Duncan turned her,back upon the decadent remnantsof nineteenth ceritury ballet with its artificialities and use of elaborate scenery andcostumes, 'she set in. motion certain innovations and reforms that helped toreshhpe the world of dance. Isadora's preference for unshod feet and the freemoving Grecian tunic, her choice of a' simple blue curtain, against which toperform her dances, directed a trend toward simplicity and flinctionalism in bothcostume and setting that has continued, with minor modifications, to this day.While classical ballet persisted in its traditional use of spectacular costumes andscenery, the followers of Isadora, by preference as well as far economic reasons,chose simplicity.




I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (7)

Era of "Natural" Dance

"Natural" dance performances, popular inthe 20's, were often staged outdoors.The ro man ticidea of "dancing-on-the-green", however posed unexpected prob.-lems An immediate discovery was that the earth was non-resilient. Instead ofsoaring through space, the leaping dancer found himselfshckkingly earthbound.Acorns, sticks, and unseen pebbles created plecanous landings.

The staging of these performances was simple and unaffikted The naturalsetting of trees and shrubbery often provided the background When arboreal,settings were lacking, temporary fences and trellises covered with greeneryprovided an adequate substitute Costumes were generally adaptations of Isad-ora's Grecian garb, the colors chosen to contrast and Nmonize with the soli41green setting These costumes were primarily made of ch,eeseclofh, silk, crepe,and organza, tinted in rainbow hues, sometimes in several blending tones, a few -

wer? tie-dyed to create irregular geometric patients on the colored silk Althoughlegs and arms were bare, form-fitting costumes, uncovered by drapery, would

4 have appeared indecent Indoor lighting for evening performances consisted ofglaring floodlights and overheads that were turned on w hen the dancing corn-menced and turned off when it ended. Subtleties in outdoor lighting were literallynon-existent

Indoors, the typical settings for most -so- called "natural'. or "interpretive"dance consisted of a plain curtain of black or neutral color and the indispensablepale blue cyclorama Further details of setting were left'to the audience's 'magma-tion Although settings and special lighting for dance have gradually becomeincreasingly theatrical, the velour curtains and blue cyclorama still constitute themodern dancer's basic scenic equipment

Slightly antecedent to Isadora, but also her con tdmporary, was a woman by thename of Loie Fuller_ Through merest accident she created a costume that launchedher career as a dancer Its most notable feature was a skirt containing countlessyards of material that she billowed aizid swirled in moving shapes to createapparitions of butterflies, orchids, flames, or whatever the imagination might,fanty But her greatest contribution was her creative experimentation with theatrelighting which was explored to the fullest to intensify her fleeting illusions. It was

ampersthat in one effect she used 1,000 mpers of electricity, enough to fight a townof thirty thousand.

The harnessing of electricity made possible not only the spectacular lightingeffects demanded by Loie Fuller, but it also openecilhe way, generally, to inven-tive use of colored light, area lighting, and variations in total intensity to reinforcethe changing dramatic moodLO the dance. Costume colors could now be mod-

, ified or cha.nged by means of colored gels.The draped Grecian tunic eventually shared the stage with costumes that were

slightly more form-fitting with straight, circular, or gathered skirts of variouslengths, depending upon the needs of the dance. Costumes for men' There werenone. Interpretive dancing was strictly a feminine art.

Early Modern Dance

Contemporaneously during the 20's and 30's, Ruth St. Denis and Ted ShawnWere moving in a somewhat different direction. The Denishawns created elabo-rately exotic costumes in keeping with their oriental, Mexican, and AmencanIndian dance themes Miss Ruth's love for manipulating draperies to dramaticends became a trademark of her dances Fokine is rumored to Yaw remarked



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facetiously, "All Denishawn dancers should work at Macy's. They handle cloth sowell" Their %taging though still quite simple, occasionally contained set piecesappropriate to the dance locale.

, v.With the organization of Ted Shawn's company,of all-male dancers in the 30's,attention was given to costumes for men. Although 'some of his costumes wereabstricted versions of ethnic forms, particularly those of the American Indian, hisreal innovations came with the use of sportsWear, bell -bo omed slacks, or evensimple loin cloths to clothe the bodies of his young, athle 'c dancers. . *

In Europe, German Expressionist, Mary Wigman, showed a predilection forlong:skirted costumes for herself and the members of her 411-female dance :FT up. .

Some of her costumes were made of ghiMmery metallic cloth, others were de-,signed with capes that could.cloak the body or be flourished for dramatic empha-sis Most importantly, however, she reintroduced the use of symbolic masks thatdepersonalized her perfoimers and Added a sense of dramatic mysticism to the .dances, thus heightening the emotional impact.

Out of the Denishawn School in America there emerged three important dancefigures (Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, and Charles Weidman) each verydivergent in artistic aims and temperament, yet these young artists of the 30'sshared one dream it common. Turning away from oriental exoticism and othereclectic influences, they sought to discover a movement language and expresionindigenous to their own.native land. Their penetrating search for what wasbasically American was directly reflected in their use of staging and ,costume.

Martha Graham, who began hert independent career as a solo artist, presentedher early dances with a minimal use of theatricalism in keeping with the stark,almost primitive simplicity of her movement. Iler costumes, mostly' long,stntight-loope form-fitting jersey dresses, characterized an era of her careersmilingly referred to as her "period of the long woolens". But the wool jersey hadits advantages it not only clung to the body, smoothly revealing its outlines, but ithad sufficient weight to move well when skirtS were full and flowing; most of all, itcould stretch and give freely with the dancer% movement. One cA Miss Graham'smost remembered early dances was "Lamentation" which she performed insidean uncut piece of wool jersey tubing, exploiting the stretch of the jersey material to

' extend and magnify the torsions of her own body, wracked by grief. With rareexceptions her costumes of these early days were plain and untheatncal. Whenshe later formed her women's company, the same. of unadorned, semi-form-fitrinetostume was adapted to the group. Costumes o the Humphrey-WeidmanCompany, though less severe and more flatte 4o the human body thanGraham's, were still simple and unobtrusive.


Introduction of the Leotard

4.was in the middle at the dame leits appearance as a r sstandard costumeromantic drapery acotton jersey was bulkful for skirts) lacked adeqtendency to shrink in

d of cotton or rayon jersey fit madeattire. It was quickly adopted as the

lasses, replacing, once and for all, the'pt the Grecian tunic. Unfortunately, the

g while the rayOt jersey (though beauti-or leotards. The wool jersey, because of its

was impractical.Early leotards, long or short, which were worn with underpants of the, same

material, were generally made similar to form-fitting dresses with flared s s. Asthe public became more accustomed to their body-revealing qualities, less



I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (9)

leotards grew in popularity `Tights, however, were still associated primarily withballet w ith which yqung "modern dance reactionaries" were reluctant to becomeidentified For economic reasons, the leotard, transformed by the addition ofoverskirts, belts, collars; special sleeves, or decorative appliques, became thebasic costume for a majonty of high school and college dance productions,

Probably the most important invention of the 20th century in terms of its impactupon dance costume. was the creation of modern stretch fabrics made fromsynthetic yarns At last both leotards and tights could be Made of washablematerials that would hug the body while simultaneously maintaining as muchelasticity as the dancer's own skin. Henceforth, tights and leotrads v. ere adoptedtotally as the standard uniform for both ballet and modern dance

As this attire has gained public acceptance, hjghts and leotards have graduallybecome more than Just the basic class costume, they have had an increasing

44 influence upon theatre-dance costume as IA ell. For on-stage performances, tightsand leotards are often theatricalized by the use of paints, special dyed effects andappliques, or sometimes by cutting and reshaping the costume line itself"Avant-gardists" at times have even carried the color and design of the leotardover the neck and face by means of paints to give an effect of total coverageWhatever the treatment, the end result of the use of tights and leotards is"generally an uncluttered revelation of body form, emphasizing shape and color asrequired by proponents of modern abstraction

Further possibilities in altering the appearance of the leotard have been made by\ the use of translucent slides of color patterns projected onto white costumes. By

such means a leotard can be made to appear van-colored or can be magically andinstantaneously transformed to a monochrome or an all-over pattern of polkadots, stripes, and so on

Other Typed of Costumes

Not all costuming for dance has been reduced to the use of tights and leotards,however Although modern ballets are. frequently costumed this way, balletclassicists have continued to embrace the traditional tutu for women, the lull-sleeved blouse and jacket with tights for men, and appropriate, but extravagantcostumes for character parts CoMumes for ethnic forms generally tend to suggestthe cultural source of the dance movement. As for jazz dance, the accepteduniform has become the "T"Nntd, stretch pants or levis air&fennis shoes

The Graham Company, no longer a strictly feminincensemble, had departedradically from Rs period of early austerity to one of growing theatncalism. Hairapd dress ornamentation are now given special attention Color is generally used.Though tights and leotards are often the basic costume, skirts are frequently wornby the female dancers. One costume, unique to the Graham Company, consists ofa circular skirt attached in a normal way to the bodice in back, but wrapped aroundthe legs following the line of the leotard to create a culotte affect in front. Theresults, while retaining the flowing, feminine quality of a circular skirt, has tlieadded ackantage of increasing the visibility of the leg action. Graham is also fondof utilizing capes and-long swatches of material. In her dances inspired by Greekmythology, the costumes, particularly those for 'Miss Graham herself, were de-signed not only to please the ey e, but also to come), symbolic meanings essentialto the dame content. CoStumes and properties have often become interchange-

lable as new gy mbolism and new users have been assigned to them In one dance,for instance, an impressively long length of silver material was draped about the


I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (10)


,dander as a piece of seductive finery and later became an illusory carrier for herseducer's severecrhead.I

Taking a different tick away from the use of costumes for body-revealingqualities, Alwin Nikolais designs his costumes and properties to magnif)", andextend the dancer's movement, to create visual illusions of movement. Ratherthan reinforcing its outlines he often obliterates the body shape in the process ofenlarging the motion. Bodies may be encased in tents of cloth, in jersey tubingribbed with hula hoops, skirts may be shifted from waist to shoulder to head forpurposes of body distortion, or eye arresting wide striped tubular unitards may bedesigned to exaggerate every undulation of the dancer's body. Costumes andheaddresses eliminate all sexual differentiatid. The unfamiliar shapes and mov-ing images blend with equally n!w patterns alight and sound to evoke the magicof his "total theatre". The resulting impact is a visual, kinesthetic, and auditoizexperience that appeals, not to the intellect. but directly, through the senses, tothe emotions.

Development of "pop art" in dance has brought about the use of pedestrianclothing to costume peciestriam movement in non - theatrical settings. It.becomesself-evident that costumes for dance will continue to change as purposes andforms of dance evolve in new directions.

Developments in Stage Designs

While these changes were occurring in costumes, new developments were alsotaking place in the staging of dance. As was previously indicated, the choice ofsetting for modern dance, generally, had already shifted from a preference forelaborate backdrops, commonly identified with the so-called classicafballets, to,abare stage dressed only with curtains or cyclorama. With the advent of theHumphrey-Weidman touring company upon the'American dance scene, the useof level contrasts in dance choreography became universally popularized. TheCompany regularly' carried with them on their tours a series of boxes of varyingsizesund shapes that could be arranged in numerous. ways to provide bothinteresting abstract settings and contrasting levels upon which to dance. Whatthese professionals did, others tended to imitate.

Let us turn for a moment to some of the major instigators of Irv:, developmentsin the staging of dance that were to takeplace during the 30's and 40's. At the turnof the century, Swiss designer Adohe Appia, working in the Area of music-drams,..envisioned certain concepts that tremendously influenced not only thesTaging of opera' and drama but also of dance. His imagination conceived oftheatre design as organized space which he achieved through the use of varyingelevations in place of painted backdrops or realistic settings so popular at the,time.Thus, with Appia, the space organization itself became the design. For him theactor was the center of interest and it was the function of lighting rather than paintto create a sense of time/space, and locale/and to reveal and vitalize the actor'smovements. Appia's concern with space was also apparent in the works of MaxReinhardt. Rei..hardt's 6mous dramatic spectacle, "The Eternal Road," one of hislast major productions, employed two series of irregularly shaped levels that ledthe eye backward and upward from a huge built-out apron into seeming infinity.,

Although dance was indirectly affected by concepts and practices of these noted/designers for theatre, it was Arch Lauterer who applied Appia's principles di-rectly to dance. Lauterer's first and possibly most startingly beautiful stage design.for dance was created for Hanya Holm's masterpiece "Trend". Its extended apron

I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (11)

and immense stage depth, broken only by ramps and a series of steps across thewidth of the stage, wade a perfect setting for the dance movement. Miss Holm,herself a great admirer of Appia, was also steeped in the Wigman concept ofspace, not as a vacuum, but as a vital dramatic substance, or even as an invisibleadversary. For her, a stage set was not merely a design to provide contrastingperformance levels to please the eye, it was a structure that asserted its three-dimensionality for the dancer to move across and over and up Ind down andaround and through. . -,

No discussion of scene design for modern dance would be complete withoutspecial mention of Isamu Nogouchi w ho has created most of the recent sets for theGrahlrn Company repertoire. Part of Graham's tremendous success as a choreog-rapher must doubtlessly be attributed to the beauty and freshness of the settings,that Nogouchi had cdhceived. The objects that constitute his stage designs resem-ble pieces of free-form sculpture, yet they have been clearly created to meet theneeds of the choreographer Often symbolically significant in their forms, theobjects have also been designed for the dancer to sit, recline, or stand upon, towalk through, or to move into new juxtapositions where the viewer's changedperspective will infuse these objects. with new meanings. 3

Quite in contrast, the sets of Alwin Nikolais, as a rule, consist of little more thana cyclorama, curtainrlegs, and scrims. His use of simple dance properties such asstools, or metal 64rri'es, lengths of jersey tubing, or billowing tents of cloth, andhis fantastic use of light, replace the need for more elaborate settings.

Eden a completely naked stage, with its blank brick wall devoid of curtains,legs, or cyclorarpa has found favor with such choreographers as Anna Sokolow,by providing the necessary-atmospheric austerity for her brutal realism. MerceCunningham, in his early days as a soloist, lowered the light battens into theaudience's view to make these stage paraphernalia a structural/Tart of the visual.picture. Commonplace objects such As ladders, nets, and scaffolding have servedboth as settings and as inspiratijo for modern dance movement. Quantities ofpedestrian objects (bottles, piles of old clothing, endless sheets of newspapers orrolls of butcher paper crumpled into heaving masses, yards of plastic sheeting or .

.even floating pillows of translucent plastic) have been put to appropriate uses by .

modern dance artists in settings for "happenings" as well as for structuredchoreography. The fact remains that there are no traditions or rules that governthe design or use of stage settings for modern dance. In terms y f the vernacularanything goes".


Development of Lightirig for Dance

Arch Lauterer not only greatly influenced the design of stage structures fatdance but also,' in connection with it, transformed the use of lighting. For him,light and movement existed on the same terms . . . "they live in time, they movethrough space, they vary in texture, and they arouse emotional response."'Lauterer used light as a form of time, changing its intensities according to aplanned temporal arrangement rather than using it as a mere imitation of paint.He was fully aware of the magic of time-space and the magic of illusion. Under hissensitive directian, light was shifted to add mobility to space by altering theappearance of objects in space. Light, spatially conceived, was theatre-poetry, thepurpose of w hich was to make people see what they were supposed to see in the

'Douglas, Helen ''Arch Lauterer on Dance in the Theatre Impulse, 1959, p 39-41


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dancer's movement by reinforcing its visual design and dynamics. Arch La utererthus attempted to illuminate the dance as well as the dancers.

Such sensitivity in the use of lighting has demanded the development of awhole breed of lighting.specialists who are not merely technicians, but artists of,their craft, experts such as Jean Rosenthal, who in working with Graham hasendeavored to make the lighting an integral part of the dance. It was she who saidthat when the audience, becomes awaretof the lighting, the technician has failed inhis task. Tom Skelton is another important figure in the world of dance lightingwho, in addition to his own achievements as an artist-technician, has contributedespecially to the dancer's practical understanding of how successful lighting canbe achieved. 4# .

.4Ruth Grauert, lighting technician for the Nikolais Company, set the model for

the now popular technique of using strong side-lighting to streak the floor and togive temperament and texture tb the stage space. But perhaps the most imagina-tive and ingenious lighting expert of them all, is that exponent of total theatre,Alwin Nikolais himself. Not only does Mr. Nikolais use light to illuminate thedance movement and the dancers, but he uses it to create a world of fantasy where .linnebachs project shiminering patterns of colored` light upon the cyclorama, .

where tiny pen flashlights hurl flickering stars and flower form out of the cosmic'depths of total darkness. With Nikolais, light is an equal partner that blends andinteracts witlispund and movement to create a single aesthetic experience.


Film and Dance

The development of cinema, and colored photography has introdu&& manyfascinating ppssibilities for the combination of film and dance. Not only have theprojected images of moving abstract forms or natural phenomena been utilized forthe creation of provocative dance backgrounds, but films of ,moving people,sometimes the dancers themselves, have been successfully combined with themovements of the live performers on stage to form a larger-than-life collage ofcolor and living movement. The creative possibilities for such combined mediahave only just begun to be explored.


? .e Dancers and the AddienceChanges in Proximity andP rspective'

As aesthetic heeds have changed, the theatre btkildings themselves havendergone notable transformations.,. Sire the turn of the century intimate

peatres, seating small audiences of 6ne hundred to five hundred people, havebeen replating theatres'of two thyusand or more desigrked for spectacles. Thepractice of extending the acting or dancing area into the house by means of abuilt-out apron has lessoned the barrier of the proscenium arch and has broughtthe performers and the audienceslose together. Theatres-in-the-round, with theviewing audience encirclin4 the stage, have stage entrances so placed that theycreate an illusion of the performers rising out to the audiencer The need to makethe viewing of a dance equitably satisfactory from all directions in such theatreshas resulted in a whole new concept of choreography. "Avant garde" groups,such as the Ann Halprin and Judson Church dancers, seeking to establish aneven greater intimacy between dancers* and audience than possibilities of thestage can provide, frequently induct the audience area itself as a part of theperforming arena. .

(--' -#



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Television, as a relatively new medium, has opened another chanal through .which the dancer can reach an audience. The, television stage provides a differentkind of "theatre" for the presentation of choreography, with its particularizedbenefits and problems. Such factbrs as the visual limitations of the camera interms of sight lines, the absence of afTont curtain, the possibilities of zoom lenses,and the special considerations for close-ups have made choreographingfor televf-sion or films a unique operation which is rapidly becoming a specialized art.


The forms of dance choreography, costumes, and settings will eternally con-tinue to change, for in art there is no acknowledged, unalterable goal of perfectionto be sought and attained. With new technologies forever developing, the direc-tions that these forms will take cannot even be surmised, .wIfich Naves one in aconstant state of curiosity and excited anticipation. The only common bondbetween the arts of today and tomorrow will be that ever recurrent and universalneed. of artists to paint e -world as they see it, through movement, sounds,shapes, and colors'that spe k of their own particular here and now.




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41 2 Chaptw illl


Preparing a Dance Concert


Program Pimping, Auditionsand Rehearsals

El eth R. Hayes(


Before any dance program, student or professional, is ready for productionbefore an audience, much preliminary planning must have transpired. Perhapsthe most important essential to a successful dance event4n addition to the qualityof its choreography and performance, is the attainment of a well-balanced pro.etam of optimum length. )

k .Program Length )

Although Oriental audiences are accustomed to watching theatre events liter-ally.for hours on end, Western audiences are not. A good program length liessomewhere between an hour and a half.and two hours. After two hours of



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attention,audienae eottnisiasm begins to plummet in geometric ratio to the lengthof the overtime. No amount of good performance c.k1 sustain it. Dance educatorsare often tempted to extend a program beyond an idea length to allow morestudent works to be seen or more students to participate; in_sloing so the entireprogram suffers.

Sometimes an over-extended program is arrived at inacrvertently through m is-calculations of timing. Darices that were thought to be te,n minutes long are reallyfifteen, or the choreographer discovers that if requires mare time to develop hisdance idea than he had originally intended. Usually, however, dances will beimproved by a tightening of the choreographic material. Unlimited use of timeoften leads tO self-indulgence rather than increased artistry or even clarifiedmeaning. Before any program gets tpo far underway, it is wise to time the music ofpieces for which pre-composed music has been selected and to set tentativetimelimits for other uncompleted composition's. After adding the total time for all ofthese dances with anticipated times'needed fbr costume changes, lighting, andscenery, And the time to k allotted for intermissions, one can decide whether ornot one or two dances should be omitted. Such decisions made early are apt to beless painful than if made at the last minute after all the dances have., beet)completed.

Selection of Program Material

. Selection of dances for a given program on the basis of their content is anotherimportant consideration. Audiences crave variety. The need for humor to balanceprofundity and tragedy was recognized by the early Greeks who customarilyfollowed a trilogy of tragedies with a satirical play. The Japanese have traditionallypresented humorous Kyogen playlets as interludes between serious Noh dramas.Even Shakespeare introduced into his profoundest tragedies characters, such asFalstaf for comic relief.

If one urpose of a production is to please an audience, then the varied tastesand levels of experience of that audience need to lige considered. This is not toimply that one stoops to satisfy the lowest level of taste and understaniking. Butlittle is to be gained by giving a program so far beyond the reach of the majoritypresent that no communication is possible. It is important for audiences to beexpoled to new experienceschallenged by works that puzzle them. On theother hand, audiences are likely to be more receptive to'strangeness if, on tl*same program, they are also given the security of seeing works that they 'knowhow to enjoy. Otherwise they either secretly brand themselves as hopelesslystupid or openly condemn the choreography and leave, never to return.

Arrangement of the Program,

Once the dances for a program have been chosen, the matter of arranging theirsequence needs to be immediately undertaken. Doing so enables one to deter-mine whether or not there are satisfactory-opening and closing numbers amongthe dances. If not, there may still be time to make one. Knowing the order of theirogram be ?ore the dances are finished also enables one to discover awkward

stume changes in time to make some shifts in casting or adjustments in theoreography. Dances with difficult scene changes may need to be placed just

before or after an intermission. The elimination of long waits between numbers iscrucial to the success of any program.



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A few suggestions in arranging the order of dances for a program are thefollowing:

for an opener, select a dance that is light, pleasant, and easily understood,making ano demands on audience concentration;place long, serious, or thought-provoking dances fairly early in the-program'before the audience begins to tire; -avoid placing a hilarious comedy immediately before adeeply serious dance,be sure that the dance immediately preceding an Iptermission is sufficientlyintriguing and popular with the audience to make people want to return,if a program has y one intermission the part following the intermissionshould be slightly shorter than that which preceded it,:the dance folio sing intermission should be one that will recapture audienceattention;remember tha ie closing number is the one that viewers win "take home withthem" -'-it should he a group dance worthy of its placeof honor as a finale.

Considerations in Costu4iing and Staging

The choice and arrangement of dance material to be includeci on a single /program also has a bearing upon the costuming and stagi4of the dances.

Contrast in costuming and settings is almost as important to the success of adanceproduction as contrast in the choreography. Once the program has beenorganized, the choreographer, the costumer, and the scene designer need toexamine it togetherfirst, in terms of its total content, and secondly, in terms ofthe juxtaposition of dances. Is there an overbalance in the use undisguisedtights and leotards? Is there an overuse of a given color or color group? Isback-lighting against a cyclorama, for example, becominga cliché to the destruc-riot" of its dramatic value? is there a need for increased use of levels and three-'dimensional settings to relieve monotony i staging? Have _two dances withsimilar settings or costumes in the same color been inadvertently placed togetheron the program? Again, an early discovery of such problemscan permit time forprogram rearrangements, for the dance composer to remodel his choreographyto encompass new scenic possibilities, or for the scene designers or the costumerto submit new designs to the choreographer.

The current trend, especially among professionals, toward presenting onlythree of four lengthy works separated by intermissions, eliminates some of theproblems created by juxtapositions of short dances. The need remains, however,for contrast as well as unity within the substructure of long compositions, for

...contrast between the dance pieces themselves, and for psychological anddynamic btlilding of the total program.

Regardless of the types of choreography being presented, a large amount of lastminutggie fon be av9i4ed by careful advance planning and an early examinationof the program as a shole. Along with the planning of the program, advanceplans inust also be got underway for its promotion, details of which will bediscussed in a later chapter.


When the dance ideas have been crystallized, it is usually desirable to holdauditions before casting the parts. No matter how certain one may be.that ayindividual is exactly right for a role an audition for the-part often discloses many

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surprises. The person mentally chosen m4 prove to have no feeling for the part,and other talented performers, previously overlooked, may be revealed to theaioreographer through the audition.

Preparation for the audition requires careful advance planning. The choreog-rapher may wish to teach a movement sequence that contains some of .thetechnical challenges and movement qualities intrinsic to the dance. The sequence'should not be so long that it is difficult to remember, otherwise the auditionersw ill be concentrating upon recalling the movement rather than upon dancing thepart. The movement must be carefully analyzed technically and rhythmically sothat time is not wasted in confusion. For some dances the choreographer mayprefer to present an improvisational problem for the iancers. While this approachmay sound easier Irian setting a pattern, it actually requires a great deal of thoughtand planning on the part of the choreographer to give the essential motivation forthe dancer to intelligently respond.

In selecting the dancers it is usually wise to choose one or two people to act asunderstudies. Not only is this experience valuable for the understudy, but itprotects the choreographer in case of emergencies and provides.an incentiveto members of the cast to work diligently in the face of possible replacements.


Once the cast has been set, the next task is to schedule rehearsals. The numberof rehearsals per w eek depends a great deal upon the length and complexity orf the

ork and proximity of its performance date. Usually a minimum offwo rehearsals-a week is required. The rehearsals need to be spaced so that too much time doesnot elapse between them in which the dancers can forget what they have learned,yet sufficiently separated to permit the choreographer time and perspective to,.plan for the next salon. In order V) profit from the choreographic momentumthat normally dev elops during a rehearsal, the rehearsal time, whenever possible,should be at least an hour and a half in length.

If rehearsals are to be successful, they must be planned to everybody's time,to best advantage. Nothing is more demoralizing to members of a cast than to feelthat their time is being squandered. When the choreographer is concentratingon the movement of one or two dancers the others should be given somethiqgto practice.

Some composers prefer to create every etail of the choreography themselves.When this method is used, however, it important to clarify to the dancers thechoreographic inteet a the movement. ther composers like to share with theirdancers the setting of choreographic details, tips permitting the dancers to dis-cover movements that feel and look right on their own bodies. However, evenwhen this method is used, the choreographer must always come prepared withadequate motivation for this, creative discovery, with a full knowledge of whateffect he is striving for, and with gtrggestions for movement possibilities.

While creating the dance, the composer must also envision as clearly as possiblethe costumes, lighting, and total setting for the choreography. The sets andcostumes should be completed at the first possible moment (usually as soon as itappears that the dance will'actually materialize). Meanwhile makeShift costumesand sets resembling the final product will need to -be improvised for rehearsalssince the dancer's movement is bound to be affected by them. The envisionedcostumes may impose restrictions upon some of the dance movement or at othertimes magnify their effectiveness. These discoveries should be made when the


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choreograph is ;tip in its formative stage so that advantage may be taken of thecostume possibilifies. A three-dimensional stage set with ramps, boxes, or levels,has no function unless its space potential is fully utilized in the choreography. Noamount of imlining on the part of the director or the dancers can substitute foractual experimentation on the sets themselves. An eafly look at the stage space, anawareness.of the placement of entrances and exits, a knowledge of the availabilityof and placement of curtains, legs, scrims, and cyclorama, and an understandingof lighting possibilities and limitations, may save much last minute frustrationand disappointment.

The more clearly the' choreographer can visualize his total dance concept andthe possibilities for his end product before he begins to compose and the moreadequately he prepares himself for his rehearsals, the greater are the chances thathis work will have clarity of form and expression.

Preliminary Showings

As an experienced choreographer knows, the objective eye of a good dancecritic or group of critics can be very helpful in evaluating a work-in-progress. Withineizerienced choreographers the need for periodic impartial criticism from achbreographic advisor or an informed audience is particularly important. Oftenyoung choreographers are too close to their own works to be able to objectivelyview them. They see what they want to see and not what is actually present. Theybecome enamored of their own movement and fail to economize and select. Ifallowed to proceed on their own, students usually wait until a work is nearlycompleted before asking for criticism. By this time the form is solidified and littlemore than minor changes can be made without destroying the total fabric of thepiece. For this reason the first formal preliminary showing of choreography-in-progress should be scheduled' about a third to halfway through the rehearsaltime before the production date. If certain dances are to be chosen for actualproduction from the total group of works-in-progress there should be adequatetime allowed between this preliminary date and the selection date to enable the.choreographers to act upon the criticisms received at the first showing. Nochoreographer, of course, should feel obligated to make changes to suit his critics,but he must also be P?bpared to accept the consequences of his decisions.

Selecting dances to be used On d program and eliminating others is alwayspainfuC ludent committees find it difficult to be objective When their friends areinPolved as choreographers or performeis. If #ivailable, it is often desirable toappoint a jury of experts m:it directly involved with the concert to make theselection, thusminimizing subjective judgments and personal prejudices that cancreate problems. Although students are bound to be disappointed if their piecesare eliminated from a program, the experience can also be educationally valuableif they can understand the reasons for such decisions. The truism that we learnfrom our failures more than from our successes is applicable if the teacher takesthe time and effort to help the student to objectively evaluate the strengths andweaknesses. of his own choreography.

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teff ffiII

Designing the Costumes ,

Elizabeth R. Hayes1

Although costumes for dance have undergone many transformations over theyears, the criteria for good costume design remains unaltered. A dance costumecan never be considered as an isolated "object d'arte", it,s success is measured interms of its support of the dance idea and the dance movement as well as in termsof its effect upon the appearance of the wearer and its relationship to the perfor-mance envircmment. Any costume design involves a consideration of at leastthree factors: the shape of the costume and the lines within it, the color or colors ofthe costume; the texture and fabric of the costume.

Costume Shape and Line

Anyone who has ever seen illustrations of historical costumes in silhouette canNit fail to recognize the tremendous importance of costume shape or outline in(Alining a particular historical period. Society's attitude toward the human body



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is reflected in costume. Through the ages, especially among societies that encour-a e affectation, or upon occasions whenrthe wearer seeks to move the viewers tos ates of shock, mystery, or amusem*nt, the shape of the natural human figure

ends to be concealed or distOrted by the costume silhouette. In producing theatrecostumes for a given historical period or ethnic group, the designer needs toexamine the silhouette of the authentic costumes as determined the typical lines ofthe neck, waist, sleeves, hem, and so forth. While tie costumer attempts to copythe original with littleor no modification for realistic theatN, the costume designerfor dance attempts rather to convey the "feeling" of the period of culture fromwhich the dance is derived Selecting those costume characteristics that areespecially typical of the people or era being portrayed and also stiFfportive of thedance mood and movement, the costume designer for dance emphasizes thefeatures while -minimizing or eliminating others. To- convey a late medieval orearly renaissance atmosphere, one designer selected from the traditional wom-en's Fifteenth century costumes the high waistline, the collared V-neckline, thegenerous train and tall conical hat, and applied them to a basic unitard. No onemissed the long skirt of the traditional costume. The real essentials were presentand the movement of bodies and feet of the dancers were more clearly revealedthan the authentic dress would have permitted..Sometimes, however, it is impor-tant to retain the movement-restricting features of a "period" costurtie becausethose v ry movement restraints may be an essential characteristic of tile move-ment o eople of that era The disproportionately tall hats of the ladies of latemediev time could not help but limit head movements and affect generalcarriag In the same way, the restrictive hooped skirls of the court ladies of MarieAnto ette's day left their ;nark upon court dances.

When costume shape is gteatly exaggerated the effect becomes humorous.Huge leg of mutton sleeves or exaggerated bustles provoke amusem*nt. Anyelement of surpnse, such as a modest turn-of-the-century bathing costume thatberomes a risque bikini when viewed from the rear invokes laughter.

A costume shape and line can do more than place a dance within a given era orethnic group, or establish it as a humorouspr senous piece. Line has many subtleimplications. Expenments have shown that patterns of lines affect observerspsychologically in a rather consistent fashion either for physiological reasons or asa result of experience and association Straight lines appear strong while mostcurves seem gentle; horizontal lines seem quiescent (though they may alsosuggest speed); verticals suggest poise and equanimity, diaPnals appear activeand unresolved. Sharp angles are dynamic, restless, exciting; curved patterns areflowing Furthermor5, symmetrical designs present an effect of stability, for-mality, dignity, and tradition; asymmetrical designs are free, informal, and un-predictable These are effects that the choreographecineeds to bear in ritind notonly in designing the movement and floor patterns of his choreography, but alsoin planning the stage sets and costumes for the dancers.

Costume Color

Color, like music, seems to halk a direct appeal to the emotions The effect off rrcolor upon the viewer is four- Id" Fro'a physiological, point of view certaincolors absorb light waves ctf hig vibration with increased beat value, while othercolors reflect these waves In light, the colors at the violet end of the spectrumhaveshorter wave lengths and consequently, faster rates of vibration with increased


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heat value. Violet pigment abscirbs other light rays but reflects violet rays, so violetis a cool color. On the other hand, red pigment at the other end Of the spectrum,absorbs the violet rays while reflectittg red rays, and so it is a warm color. Colors atthe red, end of the spectrum (red, orange, and yellow are warm colors, whileviolets, blues, and greens are cool). These temperatUre differences can actually befelt in the human body When such colors are worn.

Again, physiologically, w'hen one looks at colors, certain ones appear to ad-vance toward the viewer while others recede. This. phenomenon is more thanmere illusion, it is the'result of the refracted wave lengths of different colors. Reds,oranges, yellows, yellow- greens, and white are the so-called ad} aipil ng-colors,while blue-greens, blues, violets, and blacks are all receding. This is why traffic

1.. signs are painted red or yellow rather than violet or blue. In dance, when thecostumer, set designer, or lighting director wishes to give a feeling of cavernousex se or distance, he chooses violets, blues, blue-greens or blacks, nliit only.

se they are associated with the expansiveness or distant haze as.....*en inna re, but also because these colors appear to recede from our vision. Oppo-s'ngly, reds, yellows, oranges, and yellow-greens are colors of immediacy, de-manding attention from the audience because of their advancing qualities.

Psychologically, also, the viewer is affected by cold, a human reaction that iscommon knoviredge among people working with the emotionally disturbed.Colors at the red end of the spectrum (reds, oranges, yellows, and y ellow -greens)tend to excite, while blue-greens, blues, and violets except in their brightest

1intensities, can calm, soothe, or even depress. Brightness of color increases itsstimulating qualities. Grays and blacks are somber in effect. Color-tints (colorsd ted with white) and color-shades (colors diluted with black), or color inten-siti that have been muted by addition of their color complements have pro-portionately lessened excitement and emotional impact in direct ratio to the loss ofbrightness or intensity. ..,

Beyond these universal reactions to color for which thefe are scientific expla-nations, aere are also individual responses based upon personal experiences andcultural conditioning. Cultural mores of most occidental societies design whitefor marriage as a symbol of purity, purple (originally crimson) for roOlty, andblack for mourning. Among some far eastern cultures, red is associated withweddings and yellow is a symbol of the emperor. The colors seen in nature causeus to associate blue with water and sky, green with forests or spring growth, whitewith snow, and so forth. Coloahave certain meanings under cert.#1 conditionsand the color symbolism changes according to circ*mstance. Eack individual,depending upon his experiences, has his own particular patterns of association. It

. becomes obvious, then, that from the standpoint of association, no two people. will react to color in exactly the same way. Yet, within a given culture, there a

enough experiences with color that are sufficiently universal to guide the costumestage designer for dance in selecting colors that v. ill best convey the mood and

(i4.1:4dmeaning of the dance. -

Particularly in serious dances, the designer may not want to appearabyious inhis use of color symbolism at the risk of becoming banal. To avoid this pitfall he

-*, sometimes selects off-shades of the true colors, shades that will suggest ratherthan "shout" to the audience the concepts he has In mind. Again, a designer maydeliberately choose completely unexpected colors for his sets or costumes tocreate an effect of fantasy of Iheatrical abstraction. But the total color impressionmust harmonize with the intended dance mood or else the designer and thechoreographer will find themselves working at cross-purposes.


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COIar Harmonies

Certain color combinations are more pleasing tO the eye than others. As inmusical harmony, how e% er, the exact combinations that seem particularly satisfy-ing vary from period to penodsand culture to culture and are influenced to a largeextent by to what the eye or ear has become accustomed. Analogous colorschemes, that is, a sequence of colors that are immediately adjacent on a colorwheel (yellow-green, yellow, yellow-orange, and orange, or violet, blue-violet,blue, and blue-green) give bdth a sense of unity and vanety to the color organiza-tion Use of different tints, shades, and other variations of the same color ac-complishes the same result, but w ith increased subtlety, giving depth to the visualimpression.

Complementary colors, such as red and green, yellow and violet, or orange andblue, pigments that appear on opposite sides of the color wheel and possessopposing physical properties, may appear too obvious in their color contrastswhen used full-strength, they are also difficult to light, since the light that bringsout one color tends to kill the other. Split complements, that is, a given color andthe two hues on either side of its complement, such as red, blue-green, and

,yellow-green, while still somewhat difficult to light, are more subtle in their colorcotitrast than a choice of true complements. Unusual colors are apt to be moreinteresting than pure primary or secondary colors and make for increased vanetywhen,used in combination

If more than one color is used in a costume or.a group of costumes, it is duallywise to make the proportion of colors uneven so that one color appears todominate. Dominance of color can be regulateailsy either adjusting the amount ofthe given color or its intensity relative to the others. In designing a group ofcostumes, a single color can be applied /in large or small amounts to the differentcostumes as a means of tying them together, a neutral color such as gray, tan,white, or black can be incorporated in all the costumes to provide the unifying

4' thread Especially when bnght colors are used, a lai-ge amount of neutral color isneeded to produce the necessary balance

When looking for the right combination of colors for a dance a collection ofswatches of various tints and shades of every color such as are to be found in paintcatalogues, can be useful. By playing with these watches, new color harmoniescan be discovered.Colors that appear to clash close range may prove to beexciting when viewed from a distance and under theatre lights. Color combina-tions found in window dressings, paintings, or magazine illustrations may alsosuggest effective possibilities. The next problem, which is not always easy, is tofind the chosen colors in the appropriate costume fabrics

After this has been done, these fabrics need to be tested and tre hghts,since different fabncs of the same color may change in appear ce under artificiallighting as a result of differences in fabric texture. Some colo are easier to lightthan others. Yellows, especially, can be difficult to light. Pa e creams and off-whites are usually more successfully lighted than dead-whit , and also have ancher appe4rance


Costume Texture and Fabric

Another aspect of costume fabric with which the designer must be concerned isthe texture of the material, which includes not only its surface appearance but alsothe way in which the fabric hangs or moves on the wearer. The surface texture ofthe matenal may be dull, shiny, rough, smooth, or velvety, the matenal itself may



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be transparent or opaque. In its hang and movement, costume fabrics can drapegracefully on the body, stand stiffly away from it, cling to itself, fall heavily to theground and swirl around energetically, or lazily float .in the air. All of thesecharacteristicsgmay have their appropriate uses in costuming dances.

Materials that drape most beautifully are silk, rayon, nylon, and wool jerseys.Nylon tricot and other lingerie fabrics are very useful since they are wide, inex-pensive, and come in various weights, colors, and degrees of shininess, they alsodye w6Land seldom ravel or ru,n. Silk, rayon, or nylon jerseys can be heavy ordiaphanous depending upon the weight of the material. On *e other hand, wooljerseys are heavy and skirts Of this material move beautifully in response to bodyturns. Heavy fabrics always move with greater speed and centrifugal force thanlightweight Materials.

Crepes of all kinds drape beautifully. Acetate lining fabrics are lightweight,relatively inexpensive, and come in a variety of colors, they drape only moderatelywell and are usually dye resistant. Polyester broadcloth is somewhat stiffer thancrepe and lacks its rich surface texture. One should keep in mind that polyestermaterials are difficult to dye. Unbleached muslin is one of the most economicfabrics, it comes in several widths and weights and can be easily dyed in almostany soft color. Lightweight muslin contains a lot of sizing and may lack body afterwashing. Sheets, especially king-size, if not too old and worn, are good formaking costumes. The wide material is particularly advantageous forcircle skDenim is good when a sturdy fabik is needed and it comes in many different Alincolors as well as in stripes and prints. Because of its shiny surface, satin is flashyon stage and is only appropriate for certain situations ortypes of dances. Crepe-backed satin, which is relatively inexpensive, has the appearance of satin but hasan added, advantage of moving softly, like crepe.

Taffetas are probably among the best fabrics to use when shiftless and formalityare desired, though it is possible to heavy-starch or spray with "magic sizing"other kinds of material or to line them with pellon. Taffeta is relatively inexpensiveand comes in a great variety of colors, however, it loses body with washing andcleaning and tends to crack when folded. Taffeta also makes a rustling sound inmovement which may or may not be a desirable added dividend.

Heavy cotton flannel looks rich in texture under lights, but it does have atendericy to ding to itself. Velvet, of course, is beautiful, though expensive.Velvetben and corduroy, especially ribless corduroy, resemble velvet under lightsand are far less expensive. Small tcj.4ches of velvet, brocade, satin, or other richmaterials added to a costume ma., f inexpensive fabrics can often create anillusion of total elegance. One sho ever combine r al and fake velvet or realand fake fur, however, since the deception is immedi ly discernable.

Fabrics to be used for appliqueing on tights and leot rds must ha,,;e the samestretch capabilities as the tights and leotards themselves. Old leotards that can becut up and used for this purpose provide the most ideal material. Nylon stretchtubing used for maternity clothes can be purchased in black and white and thewhite tubing can be dyed. Other non-bonded jerseys are also usable. Thanks tocurrent fashion, ft tretch'fabric.s are available in many different colors. Leotardfabrics, especially millskin, and patterns for making leotards and tights can beobtained from fabric wholesale companieb.

Lightweight materials are tulles, organdies, organzas, nets, georgettes, andchiffons. Nets and organdies have a starchy, brittle quality. Organzas, which havea delicate lustre, and nylon chiffons drape somewhat more softly than tulles andorgandies but still contain a certain amount of resilience. Silk chiffons and rayongeorgettes, on the other hand, hang down very softly. Silk chiffons are much




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more expensive than nylon chiffons, but the difference in fabric quality may beworth the difference in cost;

A small printed paffern on the costume fabric can give the material a rigitextured appearance even though the print itself is not large enough to carry assuch to the audience. If a printed pattern is intended to be seen, then it must beextremely large. In seletting such a print it is wise to test it by looking at the bolt ofmaterial from the distance of the length of the store. It is often sprprising hor theappearance of a print can change at such a distance. Even trimmings, such asbands of sequins, need to be at least an inch or an inch and a half wide if they are tobe seen from the back of a large auditorium.

Not all costume materials are found in dress fabric departments. Drapery andcurtain materials and upholstery trim have been known to solve many a costumeproblem. Although drapery fabrcs are expensive, they are so wide that it usuallyis unnecessary to purchase muc'h yardage. Costume houses carry fabrics, also,but many of their materials are designed for commercial dance reviews and are tooflany for the needs of the modern dancer. Too much glitter onstage can bedistracting.

Creating the Design

In designing costumes for a specific dance, there are many factors to be consid-ered. First, and most important, is the dance concept itself. Does it belong to aparticular historical period or ethnic culture? Is it a comedy or a serious dance? Is itprogrammatic and fairly literal in concept or is it partially or completely abstract?

Where is the movement interest focused? Is it in the feet, the arms, the legs, thehip actions, or in the body shapes? If footwork is important, tiki the feet must notbe hidden by a floor length skirt. Important leg movement requires the freedom ofaction that can be provided by a flaired or a split skirt or by the total absence of askirt.if pelvic movement is intended to show, the costume, will need to be fitte'closely around the hips, though it can flair below the hiplines a style characteristicof Spanish Flamenco costumes. Arm movement that must be seen with claritynormally requires the use of a simple, fitted sleeve or no sleeve at all. Leotards andtig sually provide the best costuming for dances in which body line, shape,and motion anyparamount.

The movement quality of the dance is another factor that influences costumedesign. Most affected is probably the choice of costume fabric as discussedheretofore, the general shape and flow of the costume cant also play a supportiverole in underlining the movement quality. Strong, peicussive movement, ifclothed in anything other than leotard and tights, demands the use of stiff orweighty fabrics with lines that are strong, direct, and usually straight or angular.Lyrical Movement quality, on the other hand, is best augmented by lines thatcurve and fabrics that flow, swirl, or float. Stacatto movement that is light andbrittle suggests the use of starchy, lightweight fabrics and acute angles.

Closely allied to the movement quality of a dance is its general mood. Becauseman is so emotionally affected by color, the importance of selecting costumecolors that will support the dance feeling or mood cannot be over-estimated. Noother costume element can do as much to emphasize or destroy a given mood ascolor itself.

A further consideration in the costume design must be the body structure of thecers who are to be the wearers. Onstage, a dancer looks taller and larger thanhe appears normally. Added height is usually not undesirable, but added corpu-lence is quite another matter. Bodies that need to took thinner than they are can be



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made so by the avoidance of all horizontal lines, particularly those that tend to cutthe body in half, and by the use of vertical lines whenever possible, Costumeswith dark side .panels running the len&th of the torso or costumes sprayed ordip-dyed to be dark along one or both sides can be very slenderizing. Costumesthat fit too tightly tend to emphasize overweight portions of the body.

Most good costume designs have a focal point or center of interest. One must besure to place the color accents or decorative motifs where he wants the eye to go.When a single body area is disproportionately large, it is wise to design thecostume to draw t r- eyes elsewhere or to use lines to give an impression ofincreased breadth to me other part of the body The use of receding colors andgrayish hues can also ake the undesirable aspects of a figure less obvious to theeye.

Empire waistlines, w Ile attractive on slender, small-bosomed figures if thematerial is sheer enough o allow the body silhouette to show through or if thecostume is slightly fitted to e waist, can be a disaster on a buxom or full-bustedfigure On the other hand, a drop-waistline which permits the flair of a skirt tobegin tin the hips rather than t the waist can lengthen and slenderize a body thatis short-waisted or slightly eavy in the middle, but can be devastating to a"hippY" person. The same asic principles in the use of vertical and horizontallines can be applied to men's costumes. For men who have overly thin legs, wooltights are more flattering than nylon tights because the thickness of the wool givesadded girth to the leg. The same corrective effect can be obtarnedliy wearing a pairof flesh colored tights under the nylon tights of a costume.

The background against which the dancers are to perform will be anotherdetermining factor in costume design, particularly in the choice of costume colors.Although it has been said that light colors of low intensity show off body move-ment more effectively than bright or dark colors, even more important is thedegree of color and value, contrast between the dancers' costumes and the cur-tains, cyclorama, or other scenic background. While the effect of a cyclorama canbe changed with lights, there is not much that one can do to transform a blackcurtain For the most satisfactory effect, the costuming and staging should be


planned together so,that one can be made to enhance the other and the total effectof design and color harmony can be unified.

Colors of strong intensity are fatiguing to the eye. For large groups or longdances it may be wise to soften or gray the intensities slightly or to dilute the effectof the strong colors with the use of a large proportion of blacks,grays, and whites,or other neutral colors Pure hues and strong intensities work best in folk dancecostumes and dances for children. In group dances where it is intended for thedancers to be related, a unifying color or color harmony can be used to tie thedancers together If a basic color is not used, a common costume design can serveto unify the group. For a dance of several sections,' the use of basic costumethroughout the dance to which different accessories can be applied not only helpsto tie all the parts together but may sometimes provide a means of economizing oncostume costs when finances are limited. Dominant figures in a dance need to becostumed so that theywill stand out against the group either by means of the colorthat attracts the eye or by contrast in costume design. It is also important toremember that a costume design eminently suitable for a solo figure may havelines that are too overpowering or too decorative when applied to a large group.Large groups require rather simple, uncluttered costumes. Ideally, the costumedesigner should also be acquainted with the other dances, costumes, and sets tobe used on the program so that his designs can be planned to contrast with theothers in color and general style.



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The choreographer should endeavor to formulate his costume needs as son aspossible. However, it is usually a dangerous practiilo make the costumes beforethe dance movement has actually been determined because a dance may changemany times in the process of creation. The excepilOn, of course, is a dance inwhich the costume itself is intended to help determine the movement, in whichcase the making of at least a sample costume is needed in advance of the choreog-raphy.

Before planning a set of costumes, the designer, whether it is the choreographeror someone else appointed to this role, should carefully observe the dance withparticular recognition of costume needs. Notes should be made of movementqualities, focus of movement interest, range of movement required, importantmovement accents that need to be reinforced, dance mood, floor pattern andgeneral spatial design, groupings of dancers, solo figures, and any special devia-tions from "the ideal dancer's figure" that may present costuming problems.

If the costume designer is someone other than the choreographer, the two willthen need to meet in conference so that the designer can learn the choreographer'sintent (which does not always agree with what the designer observed in move-ment) and there can be a mutual exchange of ideas. Usually the costumes mutt be,well underway before the choreography is completed, in which case the designerwill need to know the general plan for completion of the dance.

Once the costume ideas have begun to take shape on the drawing board, itnecessary to reflect upon the fact that the final product will be three-dimensionaland must be interesting or attractive in appearance from all sides. Adequateconsideration must also be given to the ease with which the dancers can get in and

Itout of their cost rpes in the allowed program time. As a final test of the costumedesigns one sh uld ask:.

do the costum 5 pport the dance concept and its resulting movement?do the lines of the costumes Make the dancers' bodies as attractive as possible interms of their vaned structures while remaining appropriate to the choreog-raphic idea?do the costumes permit the movement to convey the dance idea rather than

. becoming a substitute for the movement?do the costumes remain sufficiently simple so that they do not intrude upon theaudience's attention?do the costumes contribute to the total unity of the theatre piece?does the effect justify.the cost in terms of time, money, and its contribution tothe whole?

Building a Basic WaidrObe

Most school budgets for costumes are not very generous. For tha eason it is.-1wise to build a basic wardrobe that can be adapted to many uses. ou s, skirts,

sets of simple dresses in various lengths and colors, slacks, turtl neck Os,and old white sports shirts that can be dyed are the kinds of articles that can bemodified and used over and over again. But perhaps most versatile of all areleotards and tights because of their complete simplicity. Sets of leotards in differ-ent colors and styles with matching or neutral tights can riot only be usedrepeatedly without change for many kinds of dances, but their appearance canalso be transformed by the use of dyes, paints, appliques, and scissors. Theaddition of accessories such as overskirts, belts, sashes, and sleeves cdn alsodo much to transform costumes already on hand. Even on a limited budget,


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amazingly effective costuming cait be achieved with the aid of a little creativeimagination, good taste, andlingenuity. Modern dance was born for freedomand originality of expression. Beware of the obvious of traditional solution.

Additional ReadingEllfeldt L.; and Carnes, Edwin. Dance Production Handbook or Later is Too Late. Palo Alto,

CA: National Press Books, 1971.Payne, Blanche. History of Costume from Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century. New

York:Harper aj1 Row, 1965.Schlaich, Joan; and Du Pont, Betty. DanceThe Art of Production. St. Louis, MO: The

C.V. Mosby.Company, 1977.4



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ChapteT 117

Constructing the CostumesEt eth R. Priges


Most dancer who are not experts in the art df dressmaking are terrified at thethough of constructing their own costumes. After one has learned some of thesecret% however, costume-makingis not actually as difficult as it is time -consuming_ While the costume -maker can take some shortcuts, there is really noquick way to make costuMes. For this reason it is important to start costumeconstruction at the earliest possible moment so that the dancers can becomeaccustomed to wearing the costumes and the designer can makechanges wherenecessary before the actual performance.

Modifying the Basic Leotard and Tights .

Probably the easiest way-to change the appearance of leotards and tights.is todye them. Fortunately, the stretch materials from which most of these articles aremade are highly receptive to home dyes. This extreme receptivity; however, canalsp.create problems. An article dipped in a strong dye -bath will absorb the full



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4$:strength of the color almost immediately and nothing short of the use of colorremover will *take it light again. For this reason it is well to start with a dye bath ofno greater intensity than one wishes to obtain by repeated dippings. By immers-ing a sample of the material or a small portion of the garment where it will notshow, one can test the effed of the dye before dipping the total- article. Dye-absorbent materials are also likely to streak unless they are kept fotally.immersedand constantly moving in the dye bath. Further instructions for successful dyeingof materials will be discussed later in the chapter.

Decorative designs of various sorts can be applied to leotards or tights by theprocesses of painting or appliqueing. In either case the garment will need to bestretched as it would be on the human body while the design is being applied.Since either process is usually quite time-consuming, the acquisition of a dis-carded mannequin from a local department store to be used as a body substitutecan be of great assistance.

It is sometimes a problem to find the kind of textile paints that will provide thedesired results for a given situation. One must first decide whether he wishes t&make the design indelible, to stand up under several washings or dry-cleanings,or whether he prefers a design that can later be removed from the garments afterthe production is over. Prang.textile paints will hold up under numerous wash-ings and dry-cleanings. Elow- Master inks, also permanent, can be applied with apaint brush to stretched fabric sfaces. This procedure creates an indistinctoutline which can be sharpened, if desired, by the use of a Flow-Master felt-tipped pen around the edges.

Some felt-tipped pens are waterproof, others are not. Temporary effects can beachieved by using Whitman's Row-tip Watercolor felt pens that can be purchasedin at least eight different colors. These inks will wash out of leotards withoutleaving.any permanent after-effects. Pens made under other trade names wouldprobably work in similar fashions but each type should be carefully tested for theparticular desired results. Needless to say, since inks are similar to dyes, it ispossible to create dark designs on light backgrounds, but not vice versa. The samerules that govern the application of -one color over another in dyeing (to bediscussed later on page 35 applies also to the use of inks.

Small designs can be created by using stencils and household enamel spraypaints, which are permanent, washable, and come in a variety of high intensitycolors. Since the enamel dye readily penetrates the fabric, care must be takenwhen applying the paint to protect the dancer's skin and underclothes with plasticsheeting or something similar, if a mannequin is not available. Enamel paints,while excellent for making small designs, are not satisfactory for large ones sincethey stiffen the fabric. Analine dyes and temperir paints are two other possiblesubstances that can be used for creating designs, but analine dyes will wash outand tempera tends to flake off the costume when the wearer begins to move.

As stated previously, if designs of any size are to be appliqued upon the leotardor tights, the material used for the applique must have the same stretch qualityasthe leotard'fahric itself and must be sewn onto the garment when it is stretched tothe shape of the wearer; otherwise the applique will bequickly ripped loose by thedancer's movements. The smaller the applique, the less stretchability required. Ifthe fabric frays easily, the edges of the applique will need to be turned under.Tightly woven materials can be pinked. In any case the applique should be bastedin place on the model, then machine-sewn with a loose zigzag stitch, rather than astraight 4itch, to prevent the thread from breaking when the garment is stretchedagain. Nthi-stretch trims that have been glued onto a leotard are apt to loosen andfall off because of the elasticity of the base fabric. Braid and tape can be used to




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. .decorate a leotard or tights, but t rhOusrbe wide enough to be seen by theaudience, and again, fastened in place using the same techniques as have beendescribed for attaching other appliques.


In some instances, when one wishes to divide parts of a leotard and tights intoseveral colors, leotards of different hues cadbe cut apait in exactly the same wayand the pieces exchanged. Leotards so treated may, in some cases, need to be onesize larger than normally worn to provide the extra material that will be requiredfor the seams. The seams will need to be sewn with a tight zigzag stitch. If a zigzagMachine is unavallable, the material must be fully stretched during the prOcess ofstraight sewing, or the seams sewn with elastic thread. All seams should bedouble-stiched.

Another way to change the appearance of a leotard is to alter the neckline orbackline in some fashion or to cut out certain areas in the body of the leotard or, forthat matter, the tights. Because of the nature of the stretch material, the shape ofthe opening may tend to become distorted when the leotard g-cut. Cut-ou,tsshould be drawn with chalk while the dancer is wearing the garment to make surethe spacing and size are appropriate. These openings can be secured by filling inthe cut-out areas with pieces of flesh-colored net that cannot be seen,from theaudience. Most stretch fabrics also have a tendency to run when edges are leftrev/. To prevent running, the edge of

fibee stretch material can be seared with a

match flame which melts the fiber, or, desired, the edges can be turned underwith a small, but loose, running'stitch, or zigzagged.

If a figure pattern is appropriate, there are generally available numerousunbonded print jerseys from which leotards cagily made. Such jerseys, however,lack the degree of stretch found in most commercial leotard fabrics, so that morematerial will be needed than is used in a regular leotard. Two-way stretch swimsuit material is another excellent resource that should not be overlooked. um wellto cut the leotard slightly too large and then fit it to the dancer's body, making surethat the dancer can get in and out of the leotard once it has been fitted.

A leotard provides an ideal bodice for costumes that need to be smooth-fittingand flattering to the torso. Overskirts can be worn, or skirts can be sewn directlyonto the leotard. Collars, cuffs, or belts can be added, belled or circular sleeves canbe attached at'the elbow of the fitted leotard sleeves or the leotard sleeves can beremoved and other sleeves substituted. The straps of a sleeveless leotard can beremoved and flesh- colored elastic substituted to create a strapless effect. One ofthe simplest and most flatt g lyrical costumes combines this so-called "strap-less" bodice with a two-layere double-circle skirt of silk chiffon (four cricles in all)attached to the leotard slightly low the natural waistline at the top of the wlvicbones. A touch of braid or sequins added to the leotard completes the costumes.

Pattern Making, C tting, Fitting, and Sewing

In preparing a patt for any dance costume one must know the movementneeds of the dance for which the costume has been designed. Most commercialcostume patterns are designed more for Halloween parties and masquerades thanto meet a choreographer's needs.tHowever, the acquisition of a few ordinarycommercial patterns for women's bodices, sleeves, men's trousers, and so forth,that have been tested for their good-fitting qualities, can save the costumer hoursof time. Because paper patterns are fragile, it is usually wise to reproduce inmuslin or lightweight pellon those standard pattern pieces that will be used overand over again; they should be carefully /narked as the original pattern pieces,including an indication of the pattern-size.

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Patterns can be adjusted to accommodate different sizes by making slightadditions or subtractions alongvevery seam as well as vertically in the center frontand back. Some dressmakers prefer to make the addition or subtraction verticallyabout two inches in from the side seams. The pattern should be fitted to the danderbefore cutting the costume material. It is inadvisable to change a pattern morethan an inch in measurement to adapt it to a,.dancer's body, however, themeasurements of most dancers within a group wiil not vary more than one or twosizes. In situations where the same dancers are going to be fitted for costumesrepeatedly, a bodice pattern for each dancer can be made out of good muslin andkept on file. Costumes that are likely to be worn by a number of different dancersshould be made with hems that can be adjusted and seams that can be refitted ifnecessary. .

Side seams can be made five-eighths of an inch to an inch wide, with therealization, of course, that large seams add bulk to the figure. However, in orderto prevent pulling, firmly woven fabrics may need to be clipped, particularly overtheigtline, if seams are wide, in which case the capability for future refitting tolarger figures is diminished. Deep hems are impossible to make on circular skirtswithout spoiling the hang of the costumes.

The costume designer should not be timid about devising costume patterns ofhis own. Fortunately, newspaper is plentiful and cheap so that he can cut, shape,recut, patch and reshape to his heart's content until he finally achieves the effectdesired. Because of the stiffness of newspaper it is generally advisable to transfer,the resulting pattern to a piece of muslin that can be draped on the body as thecostume material is intended to do, so that minor adjustments can be made in thepattern before cutting the final costumes. Experience will eventually teach thecostumer how to attain the results he envisions without much trial and error. Butif all else fails, one can engage a creative dressmaker to devise a pattern from thedesigner's sketch and the costumer can earry on from-there.

Most dance skirts can be made without commercial patterns. Th appearance ofthe skirt will differ greatly according to the way it is cut. A straight s ade onthe straight of the material with darts taken at the waistline and little, if an , flairon the sides. Such skirts are usually left open along one or both seams to allowroom for dancer movement. Straight skirts can also be made of narrow, overlap-ping, but free-hangihg strips or panels of material that separate when the dancermoves, revealing the legs in motion. Gathered "folk" skirts are usually moreflattering to the body if the pieces to be gathered are also slightly gored to avoidtoo much thickness at the waist.

There are twoc!

principal types of Haired skirts. the circular skirt, the gored skirt.A circular skirt (see Figure 1) is easier to make than a gored skirt. The desiredamount of fullness will determine how it is made. If only a slight flairls needed, ahalf circle may be sufficient for the entire skirt. If the skirt should king fairlystraight in the front, but still needs to present an effect of fullness, one can makethe skirt by using a quarter circle in the front and a half circle in back. Again,depending upon the amount of fullness required, a generous circular skirt can bemade of one complete circle, one and a half circles (a half circle in front and a fullcircle in back), or two complete circles. The greater the number of half-circlepieces that are used to make a skirt the smaller the half-circle should be that is cutout at%he top of each piece to fit around the waist. For a single complete circle skirta radius equal t6116 of the waist measure will produce a waist circle of the correctsize. When in doubt, it is wiser to cut the half-circle too small than to find it hasbeen cut too large so that the skirt will need to be gathered onto the bodice.Circular skirts are attractive to look at and move very well, but they do have a


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Figure 1.Circular Skirts

tendency to hang unevenly after the costume has been finished. The looser theweave of the material the longer the costume will need to be left hanging beforehemming (if hemming,is needed) and the more frequently the hemline will need

.., to be re-straightened.Gored skirtsthough inore_complicatPc1 to make,haveless-tendency to sag

circular skirts. If one is chiefly concerned with saving material and the skirts areshort enough so that the gores can be tlit crossways on the material, one can placethe gores so that they alternate with each otherthat is, the wide end of one goreis placed on one selvage, the wide end of the next gore is placed on the oppositeselvage (see Figure 2). By such means very little material is wasted. This procedurecould be disastrous, however, if the material had a nap. In such cases all of thepieces of a costume pattern would have to be laid in the same direction relative tothe nap or the pieces would show color differences under lights.

Unfortunately the most economical way of laying out a gored skirt pattern is notthe most effective if one wants the bottom of the skirt to flow gracefully away fromthe body rather than tv hang straight down when the dancer is in repose. If eachgore is cut so that the gue bias of the material is directly in the center of the gore(see Figure 3) then this center part will flair outward in contrast to the seams whichalways hang straight down. The improvement in the skirt line may be worth theadded expenditure for material. 1-figh waisted skirts, especially, should be cut ingores on the bias so that the costume can be slenderized at the waistline and thenswing out. , ,

When an expensive fabric lacks sufficient body to give a skirt the desired effectof fullness, the difficulty can often be remedied by making a full underskirt ofnylon net, which is relatively inexpensive. The flair of a skirt can also be increasedby sewing horse-hair braid around the bottom. Another pleasing skirt variationcan be achieved by tverlaying a skirt of filmy material,upon a basic skirt of heavyfabric.

The length of the skirt depends upon the movement and the style of thechoreograpliy. Placement of the waistline has to do with the emotional quality ofthe dance. Skirt lengths for a sei of costumes should be cut approximately thesame distance from the floor, but short-legged dancers may need to have theirskirts cut just slightly longer than long-legged dancers. .

Although a I -cut neckline may at first appear to create a dilemma in terms ofkeeping the cosh! the in place, the problem is not unsolvable. A narrow V-linedown the center o a bodice, which is often very flattering, can be held togetherwith flesh-colored net. A square-necked, low-cut bodice which appears to leave

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the top of the sleeve completely unsupported on the shoulders, may again beachieved by filling in the entire neck front and back with flesh-colored net towhich the sleeve tops can be attached.

Long tight sleeves attached to a bodice must always be given special considera-tion to permit the dancer to freely move ,her arms. Most regular dress bodicepatterns, cut on the straight of the material, to which long sleeves are to beattached, will require the insertion of gussets of diamond-shaped pieces into theunderarm (see Figure 4) seam or along the seam of the bodice and sleeve (seeFigure 5). These gussets are not easy to insert smoothly, but are essential to thedancer's freedom of movement. Although it seens incongruous, the higher thearmhole is cut tI4 less need there is for a guss . Small sideseam gussets, orunderarm panels beginning at the waist and exten g to the armhole, cut fromstretch fabric and dyed to match the costume, work 'cely to provide elasticity inarmhole and bodice. Some designers avoid the pr blem,altogether by attachingthe sleeves to the bodice only at the top, cutting the out at the bottom seam tocreate an interesting design (see Figure 6). Puffed sleeves can be completelydetached from the bodice, gathered onto the arm by elastic at the top and bottom.Various other shaped sleeve "suggestions" can also be attached to the arms ratherthan to the costume itself. Bodicos*ith raglan sleeves usually create no move-ment problems. With fabrics that stretch or drape softly, bodices cut on the truebias with "bat-winged" sleeves have sufficient "give" to permit the dancer tomove with complete freedom.

Men, in particular, need to have freedom of movement for their arms. VVheigimaking men's tight-fitting jackets or jerkins with long, tight-fitting sleeves, thesleeves need tb be4npletely free of the jacket. The jacket can be made sleeveless(see Figure 8a) and the sleeves attached to a short-sleeved T-shirt. A 3- or 4-inchband of the sleeve and jacket fabric should be sewn around the armhole of theT-shirt where the sleeve is attached to keep the T-shirt material from showingwhen the arms are raised (see Figure 8b). Suchan arrangement not only frees thearms for movement, but also permits the jacket or jerkin to remain smoothly onthe body at all times. This same device could be applied to some women'scostumes. When regular men's shirts are used as costume tops they will lookneater if they are fitted down the sides and held in place with elastic, extendingunder the crotch and attached to the shirt tails.

Men's trousers need to be cut and fitted high in the crotch to permit legmovement. Inner seams should be sewn first and the outer seams fitted to thebodies of the,dancers. Seams should be double-stitched with a zigzag stitch andbound with sturdy binding for added safety. Surplus ski pants or navy pants eanbe successfully refitted for use as dance .costumes. White cotton surplus navypants are relatively inexpensive and can be dyed to almost any color. Bondedjersey is an excellent fabric for making men's pants. Whatever material is used, itshould be heavy to prevent the knees from bagging.

Many dance costumes are not lined, but when they are, to ensure proper fit, thelining material needs to be of,the same type of materialas the outsidein terms of itsstretchability and hanging quality. Lining helps to control the shape, strength,and fit of a costume; those that are to be used over and over again especially needto be lined.

Any washable material, unless it has already been pre-shrunk, must be washedbefore cutting. In laying out a pattern on the costume material; the presence orabsence of nap is of vital importance. Two- tone materials and materials with nap;tend to flatten out more when viewed from one direction than from another. It isimportant to examine the material carefully to discover the direction that will give



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* .



Sleeve Treatments

Figure 4.Gusset followingline of armhole.




Figure 6.Open underarm treatment.


Figure 5.Gusset following seamof bodice and skew.-


Figure 7.Bat sleeve bodice.



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Men's jerkin

a.Figure 8.


the greatest richness of texture and color to the fabric. If the costume is to appearall picecofor then all of -the pieces of the pattern must be laid out in the samedirection. Materials without nap present no problem and pattern pieces cansometimes be cut crosswise on the fabric to economize on material. Crosscutpieces will hang slightly more stiffly than those cut lengthwise. With carefulplanning much yardage can be saved when several costumes are to be cut from thesame fabric. In order to be flattering to the body, costumes should fitted neithertoo tightly nor too loosely. Dress, skirt, and even pants openin are less con-spicuous and costumes are smoother fitting and easier to get into hen zippersare placed in the back of the garment instead of in front or at the sid s. "Hidden"zippers, made so that no metal is permitted to show, can be used when practica-ble. Such zippers, however, are more fragile than regular zippers and a specialsewing machine zipper foot is needed to insert them. A simple way to put in azipper is to sew up the seam where it is to be inserted, press the seam fiat, then ripout the seam to the length of the zipper, place it (right side out) directly over thezipper teeth with seam edges overlapping slightly, pin in place, baste (optional),and sew.

Some skirts hang best without hemming. Jerseys, especially, need no hem-ming. Chiffon may appear more diappanous if left unhemmed, although itstendency to ravel may necessitate frequent trintming.' The use of pinking shearscan help to minimize this problem. When hemming is required, tape should besewn with a zigzag stitch to the bottom of the material, which IS then hemmed byhand, sheer fabrics, such as chiffon, can be hemmed by overcasting with a wide,tight Zigzag stitch in matching thread. Many machines today also have a blindhemstitch. In sewing, one should endeavor not to stretch the hem.

Where portions of a costume need to be stiffened, the fabric can be reinforcedwith press-on pellon, press-on canvass, or other products such as "Stitch-Witchery" before the segment of the costume is cut. These products, however,tend to come loose with washing or dry-cleaning.

If an effect of massive embroidery is needed for folk or ethnic costumes, one cancreate the illusion by selecting printed fabrics out of which designs or borders capbe cut for appliqueing onto the costumes. Old costume jewelry can also serve toadd sparkle and decorativeness to a costume where such an effect is appropriate.



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Costume Dyeing

Often, to utilize inexpensive materials for costumes, such as unbleached mus-lin, or to obtain the right color combinations in the coAmmes, it is necessary to dyethem Whenever possible, one should dye the materials before cutting and mak-ing the costumes in case of fabric shrinkage. Some fabrics, such as acrylics andpolyesters, are extremely dye-resistant, so it is always w ise to test-dye a sample ofthe material before proceeding too far.

It seems unnecessary to state that dark colors cannot be changed into light onesor colors changed into their color complements. The following chart indicates thegeneral effeV that certain colored dyes will have upon colored fabrics. The exactresult depends upon the intensity and purity of the fabric color relative to theintensity of the dye Further guidance in covering old color with new can be foundin a color chart for Instant Rit Liquid Dye.

If it is impossible to dye over an old color to achieve a desired effect it may bepossible to remove the original color and begin again. One must remember,however, that it is sometimes virtually impossible to remove the color from somecommercially dyed fabrics. While liquid dyes are easier to work with than pow-dered dyes they are hard to find in many colors. No home-dyed fabrics will be asbrilliant as those commercially dyed. One can obtain reasonable intense reds,yellows, and oranges, but brilliant purples and royal blues are much more difficultto achieve A satisfactory royal blue may be obtained by combining cobalt blue dyewith a bit of royal blue., For some reason, purple dye is also difficult to dissolve andneeds to be strained through a cloth to eliminate undissolved particles. A pleasingviolet color of moderate intensity can be obtained by using numerous packages oforchid dye, rather than the powdered purple dye which produces a rather dull,grayed color All pastel tints can be achieved rather easily. No matter how simplethe dye process may appear to be it is always wise to test-dye a sample of materialbefore dyeing the costume. Although one usually aims to obtain an even dyeeffect where clothing is concerned, it is consoling to the novice to know that fabncunevenly dyed looks ncher under stage lights than evenly dyed material. It is alsowell to remember that color intensities and contrasts of light and dtend to fadeunder theatre lights so that in dyeing costume_ fabrics one should alin for colorsslightly stronger than one expects to see from the audience.

Tie-dyeing is another process that can add decorative interest to a costume. Bypleating or gathering portions of the costume and tying them tightly with heavycord or string, then dipping the garment in the dye bath, decorative patterns canbe made since the dye is unable to reach those portions of matenal held by thecord Practice on scrap materials may be needed to determine exactly how toachieve a desired effect. Dye companies have free pamphlets with suggestions oftie-dyeing techniques that may be helpful to the uninitiated.

When one is dyeing large quantities of material and no special problems areinvolved, such as that of matching a particular color or obtaining an exact inten-sity, an automatic washer can be used to achieve an efficient and even dye job. Butwhen one is dyeing in small quantities or when one needs to control the exact hueor intensity of a color, the dyeing must be done by hand.

To obtain an even dye result, the material must be thoroughly soaked in hotwater and washed free of any soil or fabric sizing. If powdered dye is used, it mustbe completely dissolved in hot water, preferably in a vessel other than the one tobe used for dyeing the fabric. Special care must be taken to see that there are noundissolved granules in the bottom of the pan or around the edges of the vessel. Ifnecessary, the dye can be strained through a piece of nylon hose. The dye can then


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red orange yellow . green blue violetred orange- orange- gray to violet red-

red red brown violetorange red- yellow- - brown gray to brown

orange orange brownyellow orange yellow- yellow- green gray to

orange green browngreen gray to brown yellow- blue- brown

brown green greenblue violet gray to green blue- blue-

brown green violetviolet red- brown brown brown blue-

violet violet

be diluted with water to the desired degree. The hotter the water the more readilythe fabric will absorb the dye.

If possible, all of the material, loosely crumpled, should be immersed in thewater at the same time in order for it to be subjected to the same concentration ofdye Once the material is placed in the dye bath it must be constantly stirred. Along wooden spoon and a pair of rubber gloves will enable the operator to performthese tasks easily without dyeing or scalding his hands in the process. Whenfabrics are slow to absorb the dye, their resistance sometimes can be reduced by

-heating the water on the stove. In so doing, however, it is especially important tokeep the fabric in motion since the material nearest the heat will be most receptiveto the dye.

When one is attempting to match the color ofsome fabric, a sample of that fabricshould be wet and used as a color guide, since cloth, when wet, is much darkerthan when it is dry. Or, a small swatch of the material being dyed can be dipped inthe dye and pressed dry to compare with the original color sample.

When colors are to be mixed, a process of top dyeing one color over another cangive the cloth an enriched appearance under lights, this is done by dipping thefabric in another dye bath after it has been once dyed. The material can still be wet,or dry An'especially rich textured effect can be achieved by twisting or crumplingthe material when putting it in the second dye bath to give it a mottled appear-ance A similar result can be Obtained by unevenly spray-dyeing or spatter-,painting one color over another. Scene paint mixed with water and dissolvedground glue is particularly effective since it will stay on the surface of the cloth. Asponge can be useful in applying the surface cost unevenly to add depth to thetextural appearance. One way of obtaining a rich brocade effect is to spray goldpaint, through open lace, onto the costume material. The lace, now,gold, can besaved and used later when needed for a costume.

Once the material has been-dyed to the desired hue and intensity it should beremoved from the dye bath and thoroughly rinsed in warm water until no furtherdye bleeds out. When a fabric is wrung out forcibly, the excess dye tends toaccumulate in the creases. For a smooth dye job the excess moisture should besqueezed gently out of the fabric without wringing.

When dyeing muslin, if the material is carefully straightened and stretchedwhen it is hung up to dry, the costume can be cut and made from the unpressedmaterial. The final effect of this slightly crinkly surface under lights will be one ofenriched texture.


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Costumes that require one color to blend into another should always be dippedin the lighter color first. The portions of the costume that are to receive the othercolor are then dipped into a second dye bath while thelabticls still wet enhatthere will be no sharp line of demarcation. The same rules for dyeing one colorovsLanother apply to this situation. Costumes dyed in such a fashion cannot berinsed or washed and must be hung up to dry carefully so that the darker colordoes not continue to run or bleed onto the lighter one.

Spray-dyes can be used for materials that cannot be immersed in water. "Fab-spray" or florist spray paints are commercial products that work well for thispurpose. Td soften or change the tone of a fabric one can dust the surface with aspray lacquer such as Krylon that will not make the fabric too stiff.

Making Masks and Headdresses

Some dances require the use of masks and headdresses. W masks are used,the most important thing to remember is that the dancer must able to see and tobreathe. Half-masks, such as those used for masquerade parties, create no prob-lems and can be bought commercially. Most costume houses also carry full facetranslucent plastic masks with regular features that give to the fact the impersonallook of a mannequin. These plastic masks can also be used as a base upon which tobuild more grotesque or stylized effects with the aid of paper mache, consisting ofstrips of newspaper coated with flour paste of small pieces of lightweight stickytape, or strips of muslin dipped in glue, applied in layers to the foundation. Eachlayer must be thoroughly dried before the next is applied. The drying process canbe speeded by placing the object in an oven on low heat. It must be remembered,however, that plastic tends to melt even at moderately hot temperatures. Papermache can also be applied over modeled clay forms. Prepared paper mache isobtainable in pulp form with glue in it, forming a clay-like substance that can beused for filling out the shape of the mask. A flour paste with paint in it can be usedto make the final coat, or a coat of plastic wood can be applied, sanded, andpainted.

Some masks, such as animal masks and grotesque faces of numerous sorts, canalso be bought commercially, but some 9f these may obstruct the dancer's vision.When one wishes to blot out the feature of the face entirely, a hood can be madeof fabric and the face part covered with chiffon or netting which provides atransparent "window" for the dancer, while concealing his face from the audi-ence.

The important thing to remember in making headdresses is that they must fitthe head and be sufficiently anchored so that the dancer is not afraid to move.Variously shaped buckram hat forms can be purchased from costume houses,these may or may not provide sufficiently strong and well-fitting bases uponwhich to structure headdresses, depending, to a degree, upon the height andweight of the headdresses to be fashioned. A very small, lightweight headdressmay sometimes be secured with just a headband or combs.

When suitabletready-made forms are unavailable, a basic head form can bemade of Celastic, a commercial, plastic-coated, leathery fabric that is cut intostrips or shaped and dipped in acetone or a.similar solvent, and applied over a claymodel of the head. The ensuing Celastic form is then lined with sponge rubber.One can buy from hat or wig supply houses solid wooden head forms that can beused in place of clay head models. Styrofoam head forms are not as satisfactory aswooden ones. The Celastic form, when finished, provides a sturdy base uponwhich to build most any headdress.


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If the Celastic head forms are to fit securely when they are completed, indi-vidual head measurements of each headdress wearer must be ,.taken so that theclay head model can be male to the correct size or so that the appropriate sizewooden head model can be selected. It is important to spend time to fit the headform carefully. Measurements are taken completely around the head from abovethe middle of the forehead to the base of the skull and also over the top of the headfr8Brear to ear. ,

The Celastic or buckram head form can be extended and decorated in innumer-able ways depending upon the customer's perso ingenuity. Many differentkinds of wire can be used to form variously shap frames for further decoration.Piano wire is especially good. Heavy alumin wire is also useful. Willow reed islightweight and can be used for thesame ses. Chicken wire can be bent intovarious forms and covered with paper m eaddress shapes can also be madeof styrofbam. Spray styrofoam can be made in any shape desired. Special paintsare available to color the styrofoam, regular paints will not work for this purpose.

It is possible to create headdress decorations from all sorts of material (crepepaper, netting, nylon chiffon,. feathers) or products to be found at costume and

I novelty houses, milliner supplies, magician's supplies, or ,window displayhouses. Large feathers that are sometimes too expensive to purchase can be

_ simulated by wiring and fraying rayon cut in the shape of the feather. A littleimagination will reveal many possibilities for creating illusions with very tittlecost.

Foot Gear

Many modern dances do not call for any special costume treatment for the feet.Bare feet or simple soft-soled ballet slippers may Office. But.there are occasionswhen ballet slippers are not the answer, yet the costume is not complete withoutsome sort of feet dressing. If many pivot turns are required of the dancer he mayneed some covering for the balls of the feet to enable him to easily turn. Thesandasol, or half-sandal, created by Capezio, provides a, sole covering whileleaving the heel and toes free to grip the floor. The illusion of sandal with lacingsup the leg can be created by crisscrossing wide, black elastic around the r en danchoring it under the instep. For folk costumes a high sock or stockings may beworn underneath the lacings. Socks without shoes are slippery on some floorsand must be thoroughly tested for safety before the performance. An effect of amedieval shoe can also be achieved by using long, heavy socks, rolled down at thetop and purchased too long so that the ends of t e feet can be sewn intoupturned, pointed toes, stuffed to maintain their sha es.

Where an effect of a low sandal is desired, yet the dancer needs the freedom andsecurity of bare feet, bands of wide, black elastic encircling the ankle, the instep,and the ball of the foot, and fastened together withan elastic T-strap, can be madeto simulate the straps of the sandal. Inexpensive boots can be made out of oil clothto be worn over ballet slippers. A dart is sewn horizontally across .the front of theboot where the ankle bends and the boot is secured under the ball of the foot withelastic.

Costume Organization and Final Check

And, now, assuming the costumes have been finished, the name of the wearershould be fastened inside each costume in a place that is easy to find, such as theback of the neck or a shoulder seam. Adhesive tape can be used in place of name



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f 6

) . . - ' - 7 ...,

tape in instances where the tape can be attached to the lining or an inner seam. It isimportant to caution each dancer to double check fo see that all costume parts are...together before each performance. A. card for each dancer hating all of hisiher .

costumes and accessories can be of great assistance. i.As soon as the costumes are completed the dancers should try moving in them.' ,

and the costume; should check to see that they are cOmpleteAtisfactbry, both in..,.

movement and under stage lights. Even expert costume designers are not infalli-ble, some last minute modifications will almost always need to be made. It is

4 psychologically important for the dancer to feel right in the costumes to give thebest possible performance. Skirts may have to be shortened or lengthened,waistlines raised or lowered, seams further reinforced, bodices refitted, trim-mings altered, or colors redyed. Theright costumes will add much to the beauty ofa dance, but'in thelong run it is often the simplest costumes, well-made and

I fitted, that are the most effective. .." ,,


.., r

Hair Styling and Makeup..

The dancer's visual appearance on stage includes not only the costume, buthairstyle and makeup as well. Dressing the hair ilia way that is appropriate to thedance is every bit as important as costuming the feet': Period pieces should have atleast ksuggestion of the hairstyling of that period whenever possible. Long hair,of course, is much more versatile for these purposes than short hair. The complex-ity of the styling'is another important consideration, keeping in mind the amountof-time the dancer will have between dances to dress the hair. Wigs are always apasisbility, but these are expensive to rent and one may not wish to be so totallyrealistic in the representation of period dress.

Usually a simple, unobtrusive hairstyle is best. If a group of dancers are dressedalike, 4tniform hair styling adds to the uniformity of the effect. In lyrical dances,wearing long hair down so that the hair movement adds to the flowing quality ofthe dance may be desirable. But in all cases, one must be sure that the hair can becontrolled so that iedoes not fall in the face at inappropriate moments. If hair isworn 4, it must be properly secured so that it will withstand any violentmovement of the head or action of the body.

Makettp can be as simple as the mere ecaggeration of the makeup normallyworn in daily life or so complex that it literally becomes an extension of thecostume itself. For most dances, the former kind of makeup is sufficient and thisdiscussion deals with the application of this type of makeup. In general thepurpose of the makeup is to make the dancer as attractive a.-possible to theaudience and to exaggerate features and coloring of the dancer that tend to

. disappear with distance or fade under colored lights. Unless the dancer's features%are perfect, which is a rarity, he or she needs to become acquainted with thosefacial characteristics that need to be emphasized or even exaggerated and (hosethat need to be nTinimized. Is the face too square, too broad, or too long? Are theeyes too small or too close together? Is the nose too insignificant or too long? Is themouth Poo large or too thin? With this understanding in mind, the dancer Ginmake the most of with what he has to work.

A smooth foundation base is first applied,to the face and neck, blending it downbelow the neckline of the costume or leotard. This foundation base can be either inthe form of grease paint or liquid foundation cream. Liquid creme is usually easierand less messy to apply than grease paint and because of its greaseless nature isapt To be less damaging to costumes. For women, except those with very dark

4, i 4





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coloring, the foundation color should be a shade or two darker than the person'snaturaltural skin colOr. A standard color used by all the dancers helps to give them alook of uniformity. For men, the base makeup, if used, should be a couple ofshades darker than the makeup used by women.

.Before the rest of the facial makeup is. pplied, one must consider the need to

0.remedy facial defects by placing darker or lighter makeup upon the critical areas.A face that is too square cantbe made to appear less so by darkening the founda-tion makeup around the outside corners of the jawbone. A broad face can benarrowed by bringing the dark makeup around-The outer edges of the cheeks. Asmall nose can be made to look more prominent by blending a lirke of light makeupdown the center otthe nose, and a long noise can be shortened tpy darkening themakeup at the tip of the nose. The same can be done for a chin that is too long.

Color on the cheeks is usually applied on the cheekbone slightly outside theenter of the cheek and blended outward in all directions. le face is narrow, thecolor is applied slightly farther outside the normal placemenavd if broad, slightlyinside. Men usually do not'use cheek colorings ...,

The eyes are of special importance. For theater performance, the eyes need to begiven clear definition and sometimes enlargement. The amount of eye makeupdepends to atreai extent on the amount of distance between the performers andthe audience and the amount of artificial lighting to be used. The closer theaudience, the less makeup is needed. Makeup should create an illusion butshould never 'call attention to itself. r---)Some dancers prefer to begin the eye makeup by covering the lid and areabeneath the ey%hrow with a thin coat of clown white to which eye shadow is then'applied. The color of eye shadow will depend to a large degree upon the dancer'shair and eye coloring. Each individual should experiment to discover the colorthat is most effective. It is important to examine the eyes carefully to see whatimprovements can be made through illusion. When the eyes are large and widelyspaced, eye shadow can be applied over the entire eyelid and continued outhorizontally slightly beyond the oute,r corners of the eye. If the eyes are too closetogether, very little if any shadow should be used on the inside portion of theeyelid but should be begun about the middle of the eyelid and extended horizon-at11.y.well beyond the outer corners of the eyes. If eyes are deep set, leaving the lidsncolored find concentrating the color at the creAse above the eye, blending it

upwai4 and'outward will bring them forward. Although some people prefer toadd false eyelashes next, others add the eyeliner and then the lashes.

I Large, widely spaced eyes can simply be outlined as they are, but eyes that aretoo small or too close together need special treatment. To enlarge the eye one ca

*ifilw the outline of theeye slightly above the edge of the upper eyelid and belowthe edge of the lower lid, whitening the space between this line and the edge of thelid, For all eyes, it is flattering to leave the upper and lower lines open at theoutside corners of the eyes (rather thaii bringing them together), extending themslightly and placing a line of clown white between them. If the eyes are closetogether, the outline of the lower lid should not be drawn from the inside corner ofthe eye, but from the middle of the eye outward.

Eyebrows, neatly shaped, majw need to be further delineated with eyebrowpencil, using light feathery strokes along the upper edges. Eyelashes an betreated with mascara, for intimate theatre spaces, or with false eyelashes. Mostpeople use false eyelashes on the upper lids only, but some may wish to applyth-ein to the lower lids as well. For small eyes, the lashes can be placed slightlyoutside the natural lash line as is done with eyeliner. In all instances, the lashes



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should be shaped to flatter the eye and to look as natural as possible from adistance. Eye makeup for men is less complicated than for womet, consistingmostly of outlining the eye with eyeliner.

The mouth is the final Consideration. A warm, rich color that blends with therest of the makeup is advisable. Too light a color will fade under lights. Too dark acolor and lavender hues tend to make the mouth look black under lights. Mostmen prefer to use a brownish lipstick. Thin lips need to be filled out slightly and alllips attractively shaped. Full lips can be effectively treated by using a slightlydarker lipstick around the outer edges than that used to paint the rest of the lips.The lips should be neatly outlined with a lipstick brush, or if preferred, verylightly outlined with an eyebrow pencil.

When the makeup completed,'the performer may wish to powder it lightly tokeep the makeup from smudging and rubbing off on costumes, though somepeople prefer to keep the "glossy" look. Powder, whicli should be at least as darkas the foundation cream, is best applied with a brush, stroking gently in alldirections, using as little powder as possible.

Makeup is very much an individual matter. No rules apply to everyone. The'only true test for each performer is to examine, critip y, the result of his or herefforts, standing at some distance from the mirror t ee that the final effeCt is tohis liking. Experimentation is the only real mea s of arriving at a successfulformula.

Working with a Costumer

Some departments are lucky enough to havea specialist in costuming to designand construct their costumes. If the relationship between choreographer andcostumer is to be a happy and productive one, there are several considerations tobe borne in mind. Communication and mutual respect are the key. The following.suggestions to the choreographer are useful in establishing a good workingrelationship:

1. Remember the costumer is an artist, too. Respect this person's desire tocreate and he pride in his/her work. If changes must be made in a design youpreviously approved, don't blame the costumer. Calmly explain what the prob-lem is and ask for suggestions on solving the difficulty. Don't rule out changingsomething besides the costume.

2 When preparing for a theatrical production, a costumer can read the script,study the author's notes, look at pictures of past productions, and research theperiod. In dance, often the only source of information is the choreographer. If youaren't clear, concise, and detailed in expressing your concept you cannot expectthe costumer to reproduce the vision of the dance as you see it in your mind. Thismeans doing your homework. Clarify how many dancers, the kind of movement,quality of movement, moods, colors, every detail you can before talking to thecostumer.

3. Invite the costumer to rehearsals often and early. However, you mustrespect his/her variable time. Make sure the rehearsal involves those things thecostumer needS to use. Don't stop to work on movement details that don't involvethe costumer, but do emphasize points in which the costume is especially impor-tant Send the dancers for fittings proMptly and make sure your dancers come totheir appointments on time, properly dressed, and with plenty of time to do whatis needed.

4. Keep communications open. Be sure the costumer is aware of changes inchoreography or dancers. Look at costumes in piogress, not in an Attempt to spy

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or put pressure upon the costumer, but to show your interest and endeavor tohead off problems,

5. Establish a realistic but firm time schedule with the costumer. If meetings,deadlines, or rehearsals must be changed, notify the costumer as soon as youknow about the change.

6. Have a dress rehearsal as oon as possible. If the costumes are very complex,don't plan on accomplishing much else in that rehearsal. Let the costumer use thetime to work out problems concerning how to wear intricate pieces, manage quickchanges, stabilize head pieces, and so'forth. Stop rehearsal, if necessary, it cansave time, confusion, and frazzled nerkes in the long run.

7. If you are resetting a previously choreographed work, don't rule .out thepossibility of a new costume design. There is usually more than one way to designa piece and just possibly this new insight is what the piece needs. If you feel thatonly a repeat of the original costumes will do, try to get one of these costumes forthe costumer to work from. If this isn't.possible, or. even if it is, still photographsshowing the costume full length from every angle are very helpful. Any time yourmind is made up, don't pretend you want a creative design from the costumer.Tell him/her exactly what you have in mind. Remember that reproducing cos-tumes is the most boring and unrewarding work the costumer has to do this sideof laundry. No artist enjoys being a xerox machine.

8. Don't demand the impossible of the costumer such as aski that newcostumes be made after the last dress rehearsal. Some mistakes must be lived withand learned from.

9. When the production is presented, be sure to exp your appreciation,both verbally and in program notes, to the costumer. If he stume4 have beenwell-done, no one will applaud the costumes, only the danc and choreographythey have enhanced. The costumer's only positive feedbadk mayte your thank-you.

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Arranging the AccompanimeritJon Scoville

Selecting the right music for choreography is almost as difficult as selecting theright steps for the dance. At various times a choreographer will make a dance witha particular piece of music in mind and with the steps and the length of the piecebuilt around the music. In this instance, of course, music selection is no problem,But often dances may start as a short study witholit mu.sic and it isn't until thedance is well underway or nearing completion that the choreographer begins tothink about a score for the piece. Some choreographers, in fact, prefer to workwithout the corstrain4 of music. But if the dance is highly structured and themesteps are carefully counted, it may be difficult or impossible to find the perfectpiece of music_ foi the dance. Modern and electronic music sometimes can beuseful in these situations .sifIce they map convey the right atmosphere for thedarice without imposing too severe rhythmic or structural restrictions on thechoreography.

Ideally, the choice is to work with a composer who has experience in writing fordance and who can provide the choreographer with music that is truly appropri-ate for the piece, and even more ideally, can provide the music well enough in



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advance of the performance that the choreographer has sufficient time to rehearsethe dancers to the music and make any changes in the choreography or the musicthat are necessary. This ideal situation, ofcourse, rarely occurs and even when itdoes, it brings other problems along with it. Will the music be performed live? Ifso, will the musicians need microphones? When will they rehearse? Will theyneed to be paid? Will the choreographer have a tape of the music that is ofsufficient quality that the dance may be performed at a later date Without needinglive musicians? .

If the choice is made to work with live music and one is working with a limitedbudget, an option is to check with a music department to see if any compositionmajor is interested in trying his hands at composing for dance. In this instance,one slioulcfmake sure the composer has more than adequate time to prepare andrehearse the score since inexperience will probably mean several revisions beforeboth chorecigrapher and composer are satisfied. Also, one should try t() have thepiece recorded well in adVancl so that there is both a work tape for rehearsals anda master for future performances. Recording live music is a highly technical skilland requires good equipment, an understanding of selection did placement ofmicrophones, and the accumulation of past experience so that the recordingsession is completed with a minimum number of "takes".

If the choreographer has finished the dance before the music is set to it, there areseveral aids that will help the composer in his task. Have accurate metronomesettings for each section of the dance. Make a list of the counts of the steps and thequality of the movement: for example, 16 measures of 444 at a tempt 6f 60 m.m(metronome setting) lyrical quality. Also helpful are whatever metaphors orimages that the choreographer has about the dance which can be shared with thecomposer to help him understand the intention of the piece--

One'shd try to be flexible. On occasion, the composer may want to insert ordelete a measure or two of music to give the piece more'continuity and one shouldbe prepared to allow this to happen, if it does not seriously jeopardize thechoreographic concept. It is sometimes helpful to listen to the music that othercomposers such as Stravinsky and Copland have made for dances and try tounderstand why it is so effective and then apply thoSt understandings to one'sown needs as a choreographer.

Working collaboratively with a composer is a challenging and often gratifyingexperience. More typically, however, the choreographer ends up ling pre-recorded music, and in this instance, there is a different set of considerations. Isthe music too long or not long enough? Should a section be repeated? Is there aninappropriate section which Must be removed? The solution to these problems is aworking knowledge of editing and splicing. There are fairly detailed explanationsof splicing in How to Make Electronic Music by Drake, Herder,and Moduguo, and inthe Winter 1975 edition of Tape Deck Quarterly. But if one has ney ;r had splicingexperience, learning from a book is a hazardous proposition at best, and may wellbe disastrous. It is much better to find someone who has done it and whocan giveyou "hands on" training in the various procedures. Or, one may take a recordingto a professional studio with careful and complete instructionsas to what changesand editing need to be done. This can be expensive, so it is recommended that onelearn to splice and save production budget monies for such necessities as cos-tumes, and so forth. Splicing is useful not only in making the music the rightlength for the dance, but in adding leader to master tapes, creating silences where

' necessary, and in some instances, removing pops and the sound of recordscratches.


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Other considerations in working with pre-recorded music follow. If the dance isa solo, duet, or trio, be careful not to overwhelm the dancers by selecting a largeorchestral piece of music. Generally, one should avoid using music that is soassociated with a ballet or movie that the audience already has preconceptionsabout what kind of dance should go with that particular piece of music. There are,of course, exceptions to this rule, one of which is using very familiar music ascommentary, satire, or for its comic value.

Music which has a strong rhythmic underpinning andyet is still legato in itsmelodic structure will allow the choreographer to go in either direction in choos-ing movement qualities. Stravinsky is a good example of a composer who createdmusic that was both lyrical and highly rhythmic. The contemporary groupsOregon and Weather Report are also effective in this area.

Electronic music has considerable appeal to many choreographers. The unusualtimbre of the sounds and the spatial quality which is possible with synthesizersand echo devices can make the theater seem larger than it actually is. Also, thevery unfamiliarity of such music helps to suspend the audience's disbelief andallows the choreographer to work with very abstract and unusual movementforms if that is his choice.

Electronic music can also be grating, abrasive, and cause aural fatigue in muchi0 the same fashion that too many lighting effects can exhaust an audience and

diminish their concentration during the course of a performance. In programminga concert, it is usually desirable to intersperse dances which use electronic musicwith dances which use more conventional musical forms.

Popular music is tricky to work with. No matter how much the music means tothe choreographer, if it is "popular" it probably has considerable meaning tomany in the audience. Thus, the choreographer's vision of the music may not bethat of the audience. In addition, the music may soon no longer be "popular" andin this manner, date the piece faster than the choreographer might wish. TwylaTharp's Deuce Coupe to music by the Beach Boys has a nostalgia factor built into thepiece just by virtue of the fact that the music is no longer current. It is alreadyreminiscent of another era.

Editing, splicing or otherwise rearranging a piece of recorded music to suitone's purposes is not the way to win the affections of the person who wrote themusic or of musicians who are* familiar with the piece. However, often thecomposer is no longer alive, or lives in some distant land like Berlin, or the BrcYnx,or Barstow so that it may be difficult to contact him regarding liberties which needto be taken with the music. It is best, of course, to leave the music as it is, but if onemust edit at dill, one should try to do so in a way that is not offensive to the spirit ofthe piece. For example, doubling a section or repeating the whole piece, if it is tooshort, is not as damaging to the cotMposer's intention as is arbitrarily splicing outbits of the music which don't suit the choreographer's purpose. But if oneabsolutely must remove these passages, one should try to preserve the integrity ofthe music by removing only specific sections, for instance, the adagio from aVivaldi concerto leaving the allegro and presto sections intact. Try to leave inopenings and finales. If one has questions regarding editorial decisions,. it isusually wise to consult a composer or musician for his opinion. As a final test, putyourself in the composer's shoes. What parts of your dance would you be willingto remove and still feel that the integrity of the choreography had been main-


Joining several pieces of music together to make a collage has its own set ofvirtues and difficulties. Collages permit a choreographer to make rapid and often




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dramatic shifts in texture and movement quality. They can also permit the simul-taneous overlay of different "voices" or moods to create a kind of fugue. Butputting together a collage usually requires splicing techniques andor skill inoperating a mixer so that sound fades in and out and is overlaid with sensitivityand smoothness. One must be aware of the aesthetic choices involved in juxtapos-ing one piece of music with another. In addition, music collagesas well as pictonalcollages run the danger of being too busy and imposing a nervous, somewhatfrenetic quality on a dance which may or may not be the choreographer's inten-tion So in making a collage, one must choose with care both the musicasound andthe places where they will be spliced or faded together.

One other important aspect of working with pre-recorded music is that the useof such may be in violation of copyright laws. If there is any question about this, itmay be wise to contact the local office of such music publishing companies asASCAP or BMI for a correct interpretation of how the laws apply.

A final musical optional open to the choreographer is to create the sound scorefor the dance. It can be an immensely satisfying effort. It can also be verytime-co9suming and take energy and hours away from the choreographit pro-cess. However, with that reservation in mind, the choreographer may try makinga score expressly designed for the dance. Some of the raw materials may beconventional instruments used in unconventional ways, pedestrian and ordinarystreet sounds, supermarket or cafeteria sounds, and so forth, excerpts fromtelevision or radio shows, music from homemade instruments, spoken piecesfrom poetry, prose, or speech fragments, tape manipulations of "ordinary"sounds. All of these can be the basis for provocative scores. The book, How to MakeElectronic Music, is particularly useful in this-area, though it would also be helpfulto have the collaborative experience of working w ith{a musician or dancer who isfamiliar with taping and tape manipulation techniques.

After the music has been chosen, it is important that it be recorded and playedbacirproperly. If the quality of sound which comes out of the speakers during theperformance is inferior, it will distract from the dance no matter how eloquent themusic is. There are few exercises of concentration more difficult than trying toview a dance and not hear that pop from a tape of a cracked record as it comesaround again and again and again.

There are ways to avoid some of these sonic curses. Hopefully, he music willhave been selected in advance and a fresh copy of the recording ill have beenobtained. If the music has to be ordered from a record compan , it may takeanywhere from two to six weeks to arrive, so one must plan acc rdingly.

Once the new disc is in hand, it should be recorded right aw in stereo on thebest machine available, using the highest quality tape one an afford. Avoidre-using tape which has already had something recorded on it Also avoid record-ings on both sides of a master tape. After the initial tape has been made, a secondcopy should be immediately recorded which can be-lased in case of loss or damageto the master. It also might be well to consider recording a cassette copy to be usedas a work tape.

One should make sure the master tape has sufficient leader at both the begin-ning and the end of the tape and that it is stored "tails out". This is a procedurewhereby the tape is played through and then not rewound until just before it is tobe played again. This process helps to avoid "print through", an annoyingctaracteristic of tape w hereby the,: Sound on one part of the tape is transferredmagnetically to the i)e'xt layer acid is often heard as a faint ghost or pre-echo of themusic before it actually, begins, Also, storing tape after it has been fast-forwarded


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or fast - reversed tends to store it under, ension and increases the possibility ofboth "print through" and tape stretching.

It is important to keep the master tape in a relatively cool and dry place away-from such magnetic fields as electronic motors, hi-fi speakers, or amplifiers.Storing it in an aluminum film can well help to preserve the tape should itaccidentally pass near a magnetic field or be left in direct sunlight.

One should also be careful that the turntable from which the master tape isrecorded does not have rumble a low bass tone which is-the sound of the motorin the turntable that can severely diminish the clarity of the recording. Also, theneedle s,h,..T.tsikibe free from dust. If one has never mode a transcription from arecord to ape, it is very helpful to work Ath someone who has.

Should the new record have manufacturing defects such as pops or crackles,there are several options available. First is to take it back to the record store andexchange it. If it has to be re-ordered, it may take longer than one can wait. If so, itmay be possible to find someone who has a noise-eliminating device, a relativelyrecent addition to the hi -fi field. These machines have the ability to separatemusical from non-musical material on a record and pass through only the puremusical information on to the tape reorder or sound system. However, suchdevices are not cheap and finding someone who has one may be a difficitItprocess. The local FM station is a possibility: There are usually stereo buffs workingthere who 4ave or know the whereabouts of all the latest state-of-the-art devices.The station(may also just happen to have a clean copy of the record. Its always,worth a try. -

If t are only a few pops in the recording, it is possible to splice them out fromthe tape. is delicate work and requires some previous experience in splicing,but it definitely can be done.

A last option, should all else fail, is to play the tape during the concert vith thetreble on the amplifier turned all the way down. This will diminish the clarity ofthe high sounds in the music, but it will also diminish the irritability fifor of thepops And scratches.

Some music, like recordings of jazz from the 30s or 40s, actually can be en-hanced by surface noise. The crackles and pops may give the proper ambience forcieriod pieces. However, most other music suffers greatly from anything less thancrystallipe sound,, so whatever one can do to present the music in that form will beof benefit to the dance itself.

In most cases the tape should be recorded at 742 inches per second in quarter-track stereo. Check with the stage manager of t'he theater in which the piece will beperformed to make sure that this format is compatible with whatever playbackmachinery is on hand.

The next concern is the Sound test. After all the pains which hopefully havebeen taken to assure that the master tape is of the highest quality, it would be ashame not to see to it that the final sound coming out of the speakers is the rightvolume level and the right balance of bass and treble.

First one must decide whether to play back the music in mono or stereo. Astereo image usually has greater presence than mono. But in those theaters whichare exceptionally wide, the audience sitting on the side may hear only the left orright channel as the case may be. Mono playback assures that everyone hears theentire sound though with some loss of transparency.

Next, the volume level should be set by standing in several areas of the theater.Try to find a compromised setting if there is a wide disparity in levels. An audiencewill absorb a certain amount of sound unless the theater seats are padded on the



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r-underside so as to stimulate the acoustic properties of a full house. It is importantto make sure there is a monitor system off stage so that the dancers can hear themusic clearly and volume levels should be set for these speakers at this time.

One should determine whether the treble and bass are properly set so'that thesound is neither too boomy nor too tinny. It is quite possible that these tonecontrols will have to be re-positioned for each piece along with the volume levels.Know that the apparent volume of sound can change with dancers on a lit stage,so try to re-check the sound levels during dress rehearsals.

One final consideration: the dancers may have been rehearsing with a worktape on a cassette machine which has a speed quite different from that of thetheater tape recorder. It is important to 'Make sure that all choreographers ordirectors have enough time to check the tempos of the accompaniment dunng therun-thrOughs so that there are no unfortunate surprises on opening night.

If all goes we nd the sound system doesn't fail (back-up systems are an addedexpense but a g d precautionary measure), then the music should appear to betransparent to the ante. Without drawing undue attention to itself, the accom-paniment will work to reveal the inner logic of'the choreography afta give addedpresence to the dancers.

Additional Readings

Bauck & Scoville. Sound Design§: A Handbook of Musical Instrument Building. Berkeley:Ten Speed Press, 1980

A book designed to enable dance teachers and composers for dance to assembleinstrumentsparticularly suitable for accompaniment and sound scores.

Drake, Herder, & Madugno How to Make Electronic Music New York. Harmony BookS,a Division of Crown Publishers, 1975

A clear explanation of how to work with tape recorders, manipulate sound, splice,edit, and make one's own sound scores



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Chaptenq Vilc.)

Lighting the DanceKenneth White


Light is an essential element of dance, The concept of dancing in darkness mayinterest the dancer subjectively but has no relevance to theater performances.Since dance is, i large part, a visual experiince, the first duty of the lightingdesigner is obvio . to make the dance visible. Beyond this basic requirement,thmigh, lies the f iscinating and challenging realm of lighting design. To thenewminguitisit world filled with strange jargon, odd and uncooperative equipwent, andlidtRI physical and mental work, More often than not, it is a world full oflimitations in time, equipment, facility, personnel, and budget. The lightingdesigner venturing into this world can arm himself with a number of weaponswhich will see him successfully through nearly any difficulty, namely knowledge,experience, and creativity. This chapter seeks to convey some of the first, a little ofthe second, and if any of the third is stimulated, it is probably incidental.

Light and Color

A basic understanding of the nature and properties of light and color can permiteven an inexperienced lighting designer to go beyond the limits of his direct



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experience in terms of predicting additive color effects, understanding the designand operation of lighting instruments, choosing proper gel colors, and so on.Thus, while discussion of basic optics and color theory may seem inappropriate ina production text, this information may be more useful than an equal volume ofpractical or experiential information. Questions such as "what happens when Ilight a blue costume with red light?" or "what's the purpose of the lens in thisinstrument?" can be answered quickly and With confidence when the fundamen-tals are understood, even if one hasn't specifically experimented with or readabout these things.

We can break the process of illumination and observation of an object into threeportions: the light source; the path of the light; observation or reception of thelight by the eye:

Light is emitted from a source, whether it be the sun, an electric lamp, or aflame. Sources may be characterized as to their brightness or intensity and theircolor makeup. This latter factor becomes important in stage lighting because ithappens that the light produced by the tungsten-filament lamps in common usein stage lighting is far from ideal in terms of color makeup. When compared tosunlight, tungsten bulbs are seen to be quite yellow, that is, they contain a higherproportion of red light and a relatively small proportion of blue light. Experiencedlighting designers know that it i$ difficult to get a good, strong wash of deep orprimary blue light on stage. This is not because the primary blue gels are so muchdeeper or more saturated than primary red gels, but that there is so little blue lightbeing emitted by the lamp in the first place!

The path of light deals with the piocesses which take place one the light has leftthe source until it reaches the observer. The emitted light may be reflected,refracted, or absorbed. If it is not absorbed, then it must be reflected or transmit-ted. Reflections may be specular as from a shiny or mirrored surface or diffuse asfrom a matte or non-shiny surface. When light is absorbed by a surface, the lightenergy is degraded to heat which may in turn be radiated to the surroundings ofthe object. Colored objects selectively absorb certain wave lengths and reflect ortransmit others. This process is described in more detail below. Light rays mayalsobe refracted or bent when passing through various transparent media such asglass or water. The purpose of a lens is to refract light rays permitting them to befocused and directed efficiently.

Finally, after a number of reflections, refractions, and transmissions, lightwhich is not absorbed reaches the eye of the beholder where perception takesplace. This final step has important psychological aspects and is perhaps.the mostunpredictable part of the process.

Light, Color, and Vision0t.

Light is defined as that portion of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiationdetectable by the eye. This is a very narrow portion of the entire spectrum whichranges from radio waves and microwaves up to X-rays and gamma rays. Thedistinction between the various portions of the spectrum is made on the basis ofwavelength, and perceived color is also determined by wavelength. A useful defi-nition of color is a psychological' response to stimuli received by the humaneye. Thus we see that color has an important psychological aspect. Carefulscientific' measurements of wavelength may or may not correlate with whatpeople perceive, vhich is perhaps just anotherway of saying that we all see thingsdifferently. It is often observed that after any given performance there will bethose who thought the colors and effects used in the lighting were beautiful, while



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others will attes orrible. While unpredictable, these differences incolor preferen e are to ted. In fact, about 8% of the population has someform of inherited colorvikion deficiency and, as such, see the colors of thespectrum differently than the vmaining population. The lighting designer shouldtherefore react to criticism of hi color schemes with some tolerance. It may also beof inter to consider a potential situation In which the lighting designer (or thecho grapher or artistic directokis himself afflicted with a color deficiency.

e important point to bear in thind concerning color is that response to it isighly personal and variable. There are, nevertheless, certain general principles

and rules which can be relied upon. One cif-the,most useful principles of colorvision is the observation that essentially any color response can be elicited bymixtures of primary blue, green, and red beams of light. This is generally referredto as the principle of color addition. Anyone having the slightest doubt about thisprinciple can verify it quickly by looking at a color television screen up close. Atriangleiliagram is often used to illustrate this concept. The primary colors (blue,green, and red) are at each corner of the triangle. The secondary colors (cyan,amber, and magenta, produced by addition of any two of the primaries) lie at themidpoint between the primaries. Addition of all three primaries in equal propor-tion will result in white light.

The principle of color subtraction is similar. If we begin with a beam of whitelight (which can be-represented for all purposes as three separate beams of red,blue, and green mixed together) and pass it through, say, a blue filter, the red andgreen 'heath's will be blocked from passage while the blue beam will continuethrough the filter. By "blocked" we really mean that red and green are absorbedby the blue dye of the filter and reduced tdheat which is then dissipated from thesurface of the filter.

These same principles apply to light impinging on the surface of a coloredobject Imagine a beam of white light striking a blue box. The red and greencomponents of the light are absorbed by the blue pigment on the surface of the box,and only the blue rays are reflected back to the observer. Ifwe shine only a beam of

....1light 'on this blue box, all of the red light is absorbed and no light reaches theserVtr. The box thus appears black. A simple rule of thumb reveals itself ("like

begets like"). If we want a colored object to reveal its true color, we mustilluminate it ,with light which is close in color to the object. This can be accom-plished by using light of the same color as the object or by using white light whichcontains this same color (and all others).

It might be noted that these concepts of color addition and subtraction seembackwards to many people. This results, perhaps, from childhood experiencessuch as adding green food coloring to a bowl of white frosting. Intuitively, itseems we have added something, that we have "added green" to the white whichwas there before. And it also seems when we place a green filter in front of a whitebeam of light that we are "adding green" or adding tint to the light. In both cases,however, the green we see results from the absorption of red and blue by thegreen dye and we are, in fact, subtracting the colors red and blue from the whitefrosting or beam of light. It is important that these basic concepts be understoodwhen one begins to choose colors in lighting design.

Thus far we have dealt only with primary and secondary colors, and these aresometimes used in stage lighting. But more often, much "lighter" colors, or more

'"pastel" tints are employed. To speak accurately about the'clifferences betweencolors we need some additional terminology. A much-used system of colorclassification employs three terms (brightness, hue,,,and saturation). Brightnessrefers to the amount of light which is reflected or which emanates from an object.



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Hue is what we normally mean when we say color or tint. It is that property whichpermits the observer to judge that one hue or color is different from another. Blueand greenish-blue are different in hue. Saturation may be described by a simpleexample (if we lige some green dye and two bottles of clear water and add onedrop of dye to.tM first bottle and ten drops to the second bottle, the resultingappearances differ not in hue, but in saturation). The more diluted solutioncould be said tpass more white light, it is "lighter" or less saturated, but stillthe same hue as the more concentrated solution.

Gel or color media can be thought of in analogous fashion to the water bottleswith added dye. More or less of a given dy'e may be added to the plastiQ acetate ormylar which comprises the color media. In general, relatively unsaturated colormedia are used in dance lighting for at least two reasons. First, strong, saturatedcolors look very unnatural on skin and are generally used only for strong dramaticeffect. And second, much less light passes through the saturated gel. Only 5 to 10percent of the light from an instrument will pap through a saturated blue filter,w hile 20 to 30 percent of the light energy will pass through a relatively unsaturatedblue filter. When it is desired to produce natural skin t nes by mixing warm (pinkor amber) and cool (light blue) washes of light, it i wise to "waste" more of theoutput of the lighting instruments than is necess . Indeed, when the number ofinstruments available is limited and the resulting stage lighting is at best dim, oneshould use very lightly tinted gel or even no gel at all.

The basic "palette" of color media used for general illumination in dancenormally includes light blue overhead-wash, side lighting, and front of house, andeither a light pink or amber also from these same positions. A third set of lightlavender side lights can also be used to add some additional intensity and sparkle.It is generally best to steer clear of greenish-blues and stay with "stgel" or daylightblue. In producing natural skin tones, there is little need for any green componentin the illumination (since there is very little green component in human skin). If itis desired to light a dancer wearing a bright green costume such that both skin andcostume appear natural and vivid, white light would be an obvious choice. Use ofungelled instruments to produce white light can result in a rather stark appear-ance onstage, however. In this instance, the designer may find that the addition ofa set of side lights gelled with slightly greenish or cyan color to the basic palettewill enhance the green without seriously affecting the skin tones.

In many cases some experimentation with both intensity settings and gel colorwill permit the desired effect to be achieved, but alifile knowledge of the basictheory of color addition will speed up the process and can help the designer avoidtotally incorrect choices.

Stage Lighting Instruments

Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight

Ellipsoidal reflector spotlights, often referred to as "lekos" or "Klieglites", areundoubtedly the most versatile and widely used type of lighting instruments.They.produce a bright, sharply defined4beam, with a smooth, flat field. The beamcan be shaped by use of built-in shutters or by placing an iris in the gate of theinstrument. The beam can be patterned by use of metal plates in which designsknown as gobos have Been cut. These instruments are classified according to lenssize, two numbers are given as in 6 x9 (six-by-nine). The first number specifies thelens diameter in inches, the second number the lens focal length. Common lenssizes are 3-112., 6, 8, and 10 inches and as the size increases so does the wattage of

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ihe lamp emplo focal length increases, the angle Of spread of the lightbeam decreases. Thus a 6x12, instrument throws a narrower beam of light than

4 'does a 6X9.In dalice lighting, 6 x9 lekos are commonly used for side lighting and may be

used overhead to produce special pools. The large4lekos are used from "ante-pro" positions (that is, from positions on the house side of the proscenium). Theyare designed, for long throw applications.

Fiesnels J

Fiesnel instruments take their name from the type of lens they employ (that is, astep-lens). The beam of light produced by a Presnel differs frOm the leko beam inirtant respects, the beam does not have a sharp, focused edge and the beamnormally appears brighter in the center, feathering out toward the edges. Thisfeature of the beam makes it possible.to blend the beams-from a number ofFresnels,into a smooth wash of light over the e tage. Also the size of the

vbea'm thrown by the instrument can be quickly from "spot" to "flood".Fresnels are thus very useful when hung from overhead onstage battens. They arenot useful from ante-pro positions beanse they spill a good deal more light thando lekos. Also the beam cannot be shaped effectively, barn-door`shutters whichare fitted into the color frame slot can be used to control spill. (Barn-doors areoften necessary on Fresnels used on the upstage lights-to diminish spill of lightonto the cyclorama.)


The floodlight, or "scoop" as it is commonly called,' is perhaps. the simplestlighting instrumentous0 onstage. It consists simply of in ellipsoidal reflector, alamp, a yoke and clamP, and color frame brackets. It has no lens and the positionof the larrtp is not adjustable. It is used most often in dance lighting to produce aneven wash on the cyclorama. Scoops range in size from about 10 up to about 16inches in .diameter and lamp wattage ranges from about 250 up to 2000 watts.


The striplightTor border light or "R-ray") consists of a number of lamps houseda single long, narrow housing. The lamps are physically separated,.each liaving

its own reflector, but the lamps are circuited not individually but in groups ofthree or four. 1...Imps.ganged together are gelled the same, some striplights utilizestandard color media while others make use of glass roundels'Which are usuallyquite sattiqted blue, green, red, or amber. friplights are best used for generaloverhead washes or for washing the cyclorama. In some theaters, striplights are

''s4lts00 nted in the footlight positions in the far doWnstage area or apron.

Use of Li Ling Instruments

The mos portant principle of dance lighting is that it must be designed sothatthe en e body will be lit as it travels throughout the entire stage area.Further, the dancer should be lit in such a way that th¢ body appears three-dimensional. Both of these considerations are best achieved by extensive use ofside lighting coupled with even, general illumination from overhead instruments.Strong side lighting *es the body full and causes the dancer to stand outnicely from the background. The highli and shadows on the trunk and ex-tremities whfCh result from side lighting produce this three-dimensional effect.



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Lighting which is strongest from the front or from overhead produces a flat,two-dimensional appearance since shadows and highlights are washed out andthe "molding" of the figure is lost.

The best instrument to use for side lighting is the 6x 9 ellipsoidal. Ideally, asmany as three or four 6 x9s would be hung on boom stands in each of as many asfive wings. They would usually be gelled a variety of colors to allow latitude incolor effectS, tone, and mood. These instruments "should be mounted low, rang-ing from those mounted very near the floor ("s'hinbustersi up to about eight feetin height. When instruments are mounted much higher much of thWr "punch" islost and their effectiveness diminished in producing the desired effect. Smallerinstruments such as 3-1/2-inch ellipsoidals ("baby lekos") can also be used effec-tively as side lighting instruments andiare particularly convenient for touringgroups. Large instruments such as 8- or 10-inch ellipsoidals are of little use as sidelighting instruments as their light beam is generally much too narrow for onstageuse Inexperienced lighting technicians are cautioned against the temptation to'obtain extra side lighting by pulling these large instruments down from thenfront-of-house position in hopeeof using them onstage..This will simply result inwasted time and effort.

The need for side lighting often presents problems, especially at small facilitieswhich seldom or never have hosted dance concerts. The major problem is usuallythat circuits are not readily available in the wing positions. Some theaters havefloor pocket circuits in the wings, but it is not uncommon to find that these arelimited in number,are not discrete circuits but are paired with other outlets, or nolonger work because of disuse and neglect. (Floor pockets seem to be favoredreceptacles for floor sweepings.) This problem will often be compounded by a lackof spare electrical cable. Circuits may be available on the overhead electrics, infloor pockets, or on gdewalls, but if cable is not available, they are of no use forside lighting instruments. Plan at a rninimun1 that every side instrument used willneed its own 10- to 20-foot cable.

Another problem often encountered is that boor stands (or light "trees" or"ladders") are not available in sufficient number for mounting the side instru-ments. The technical director must then use some ingenuity in obtaining suitabledevices for mounting the instruments. At schools, it is often possible to findportable volleyball net poles or tetherball poles, the kind made from a pipe, an oldtire, and concrete are quite suitable because the base is so heavy that severalinstruments9n be hung op them without danger of their tipping. A shinbusterbase can be made with a piece of plywood measuring about 1 x2 feet. Drill a hole inthe Center cithe bOsard, remove the C-damp from the instrument and rotate theyoke do gtraight, underneath the instrument. Then bolt the baseboard to theyoke. Add, some runner boards to the bottom Of the plyinood so that the protrud-ing bolt and nut will not touch the floor; and you have an inexpensive, very stablestand.

Second in importance to side lighting is the overhead wash. The wash is aneven illuminationsofkuniform color covering the entire stage area. It is produced byusing four'or more Fresnel instruments on each overhead electrical batten. Sincethese instruments nearly always work together, they May be patched into thesame dimmer in groups whicho not exceed tie capacity df the dimmer. Theusual practice is to hang two or more separate washes, one in cool gel (normallyblue tint), one using warm color (amber or pink), and a third wash might be in arelatively neutral tone such as lavender or it could even be left ungelled.ily usingboth cool and warm wash together, a quite natural illumination (that is, neutral or"white") can be achieved.


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Border lights (or strip lights, or "x-rays") are also quite satisfactory for produc-ing washes. They, are normally colored using, glass roundels which are quitesaturated in color. Blue, red, green, and amber are the usual colors available instriplights and combinations of these colors can be used to prbduce a wide array ofcolor effects. Some striplights use gel and may d415 be made any color desired.

The front of house or beam lights are used mainly to add fill to the dancer's faceand to provide adequate lighting in the downstage area. Scoops normally are usedto wash the cyclorama with color, these instruments are focused to produce asmoofhillumination on the cyclorama and are usually gelled in primary blue,red, and green or secondaries such as amber. Border lights also can be used forcyclorama washes.

Lighting Control

The large number of lighting instruments used in dance lighting and thephysical separation of these instruments necessitates a central control systemfrom which the intensity of any given lamp may be controlled. In well-designedsystems, all electrical circuits originate' from a patch or cross-connection panel.This panel allows the electrical connection of any circuit to any dimmer channel. A -number of different designs are encountered in patch panels. Common designsare the buss-bar sliding contactors and the "plug and jack" type. The pitch panelpermits the lighting designer to set up the dimmer board in a logical minner. Forexampldimmers 1-4 might control the front of house instruments, dimmers 5-10 rnigrti control the cool overhead wash, 11-15 the pink side lights, and so on.Lighting designers often like to set up the boards from one theater to the next inmuch the same way. This allows them` to call quickly for the instruments theywant brought up from memory, obviating the need to consult a switch list (whichcan be bothersome in a darkened theater). It should be remembered, however,that d patch panel is a convenience and not a necessity. Onmany stages, dimmersare permanently wired to circuits. This makes circuiting a bit difficult and may alsodemand agility from the board crew since dimmers which operate a given set ofinstruments (such as the cool overhead wash) may be scattered up and down thedimmer board. On sophisticated dimmer boards, this makes little difference,however.

Dimmer boards come in a great variety of designs and vary greatly in terms ofthe type of hardware used, the "memory" system employed, and in terms of thenumber aboard operators required and the difficulty of their task. When a newboard is encountered by the touring stage manager or lighting designer, hisconcern should not be for understabding.the intricacies of how the board wtorks,but rather how it is operated. How 'many crew members are needed oi>. ctheboard and how complicated may the cues be before the operators are over-whelmed? Taking this pragmatic point of view, the stage manager will want toknow: how are cues recorded? how many board operators are required? cancomplex cue changes be carried out or must they be simplified?

Dimmer systems range from completely manually operated systems to those inwhich nearly all operations are carried out by microprocessors or small com-puters. Somewhere in between these extremes is the multiscene preset board.Each of these three basic systems deserves some discussion since most boardsencountered will fall roughly into one of these categories.

Manual systems. In manual dimming systems, every dimmer channel has alever or handle which must be physically moved to effect a change in thatdimmer's output This means quite simply that a good many hands are required to


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operate the board. The dimmers employed are usually auto-transformers andmay be controlled by a linear slider or a radial handle. These boards have been theworkhorse of theaters throughout the world for many years, but They are nowbeing rapidly replaced by electronic boards. While they are extremely reliable,they are v cumbersome to operate. Complicated cue ciars are difficult,espea if rapid chinges are desired. A radical cue chalige may have to be

graphed" nearly as carefully for the crew members operating the board asis t e dance onstage. In manual systems, dimmer settings are recorded withpencil and paper for each cue, as the cue number is called, each operator Mustmove hiS assigned levers to the recorded value.

A great improvemeht in dimmer boards came with the advent of the electronic,solid state dimmer. Since these dimmers are controlled electronically by poten-tiometers, it became possible to devise circuitry which would permit more sophis-ticated control. In te Multi-scene preset board, there are multiple sets of levers(potentiometers, really) for each dimme4Control is transferred from one set ofpotentiometers to another by use of a master fader. In a sense, these sets ofpotentiometers (referred to as "scenes") comprise a memory system sineepllinformation necessary to a given scene is recorded in the position of the lexeW,.. Inpractice, one person operates the faders while a second person sets up the scenes(that is, adjusts the levers to the pre-recorded levels). Cue settings must still berecorded using pencil and paper, bul in this ease, only a single "lever-mover" isrequired and much more complicated and rapid changes may be carried out thanwith the manual system.

In recent years, computer technology has begun to hav6 impact upon stagelighting systems, as well as'upon other facets of our lives. The beauty of "com-puter" systems is that they "remember" cue settings, cue transition times, and soon, with complete accuracy. Operation of these boards becomes a one-man job.The operator need only initiate cues, the computer does the rest. While mostpeople seem to have heard horror stories about computer boards which have"forgotten" cues, blacked out the stage at uncalled for and inopportune times, orsimply "blown up", when the veracity of such storks is. questioned, it is oftenfound that the fault was with the operator and not the systert. While first-generation boards may have suffered some reliability problems, great im-provements have been made in memory reliability, sophistication of control,.andease of "programming". On proven systems, cues need no longer be recordedusing pencil and paper, since they are redundantly copied by the machine, both in"volatile" memory and on magnetic tape or disc. Persons who plan to pursuetechnical theater careers should get used to such boards and learn to enjoy them,they are here to stay.

Ddsigning the Lighting

As in many artistic encivegers, the general problem of designing lighting fordance is two-fold. first, comes development of the concept "what do I wish tosee in the finished production?", secondly, comes execution "how do I translatewhat I see in my mind's eye into reality?" It may well be impossible to develop aset of instructions which will lead to success in the first problem. The concept ofteaching creativity is almost self-contradictory. More help can by offered to thosewishing to learn the craft of approximating their mental designs by proper use ofstage, lighting equipment.

As the designer gains expenence, his initial concepts about how to light a pieceshould begin to be tempered by the reality of what is possible within the


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framework of the physical limitations which present themselves. It is naive toformulate designs that cannot be tarried out with the available stage equipment.The challenge in design is to use what is available to the fullest extent, to developnew methods and new configurations to produce those heretofore "impossible"design ideas. Also, as the beginning designer becomes familiar with the full rangeof capabilities of lighting instruments, control systems, gel colors, and so forth,ideas are bound to arise from the experience itself. Eventually, the design processcomes to include theproduction process and the difficulty encountered initiallydiminishes. The experienced designer comes to think, design, and create in termsof what is real and what is practicable and this ultimately allows the highestdegree of expression in stage lighting.

The Light Plot

The main purpose of the light plot and acc ompanying switch list is to convey allinformation necessary so that a stage crew with no prior knowledge of a produc-tion can hang, focus, connect, and gel-instruments used to light the production.This is especially important to touring companies, and under ideal conditions, theplot is hung before the company arrives and only minor adjustment is necessarybefore lighting rehearsals can begin.

The light plot is a carefully drafted top view of the stage and front of house areawhich is drawn more or less to architectural scale. In most dance concerts wheremajor tet pieces or scenery are not used, precision in measurements is notessential and in practice, a single drawing may be sent to a number of differenttheaters. The light plot js accompanied by-a switch list which contains most of theinformation on the light plot in written form and any additional information thatdoes not conveniently fit on the drawing. It is also a good idea to includeredundant information on the switch list. Because no standard form for light plotsseems to exist in the profession, it is essential that a key be induded on thedrawing which identifies symbols, numbers, and notation. Do not heSitate towrite a few paragraphs explaining any unusual requirements or unorthodoxset-up. The information included on the light plot should be:

type and size of instrument;hanging position (location) of instrument;gel color used in the instrument;a numicier must be assigned to each instrument for reference to the switch list,positi& of set pieces, drops, curtains, cyclorama, special effects devices, and soon;general dimensions of stagedepth, width, wing space, proscenium opening,etc.;lighting areas of the stage define d', using outlines and number or letter assigna-tion.

On the switch list should be:the instrument number;approximate hanging position (e.g., "first electric");area to which the instrument is aimed and focused (may be th/e area assignation,if drawn on plot, or may be a description such as "downstage left ");type of instrument, lens size, and focal length, and wattage of lamp,dimmer assignment of each instrument;color number, manufacturer, and description (e.g., Rosco 851, "daylight.blue");comments, special instructions ("even wash", "keep off eyc");

57 ,39

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General Light PlotUniversity of Utah Performing Danscompany, 1979

OCiiiern idDimmer Position Unit No. Focus Type Color No.

1 side booms #1, 13 across stage 6 x 9 10ellip. spot500-750 W

2 #4, 16 FP IP

3 #7,19 PP

4 #10, 22 PP P.F

5 side booms #2, 14 PP71

6 #5, 17 PP FP

7 #8, 20 , ,8 #11, 23 PP No PI

9 side booms #3, 15 " --61

10 ik, 18 PP PP PP

11 TA 21 PP

12 #12, 24 PP PP FP

13, 14 balcony rail #1, 3, 5, 7, 9 Downstage, 8" or 10" 61evenly distributed ellip. spot

750-1000 W15, 16 balcony rail #2, 4, 6, 8, 10 PP PP

1017 1st pipe #1, 3, 5, 7 even wash 6" or 8" 61


2nd750 W

pipe PP Pt

3rd pipe PP PPF

PP '1st PiPe, #2, 4, 6, 8 even wash 6" or.8," 61

Fresnel500-750 W

21 2nd pipe FP " 1022 3rd pipe .', PI PP10

23, 24 4th pipe #1, 4, 7, 10, 13 cyclorama 14"-16" 63scoop500 W

25, 26 #2, 5, 8, 11, 14 , " 627, 28 #3, 6, 9, 12, 15 , 5829 1st pipe #25 Area 1 6 x 9 ellip. 4530 #26 Area 2 PP

4231 #27 Area 3 PP

4532 #28 Area 3 PP no gel

(Square edges)33 downstage left #29 diagonal

side boom34 2nd pipe #30 Area 435 IP

#31 PI

36 #32 Area 5 037 #33 PI

38 #3439 #35 Area 640 stage left #36 #42 Across stage

booms #2, #341 3rd pipe #37 Area 7 4"

42 " #3843 " #39 Area 844 ,,. #40 . Area 8A45 PI #41 Area 946 Upstage right #43 diagonal.

side boom










PP 33

6 x 9 ellip. 61"3661,33 '

, 6136



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circuit numbers may in some cases be listed for each instrument, but thedesigner usually does not have this detailed information prior to drawing theplot, nor is it generally necessary.A sampit light plot is included on page 58. This is a general purpose

plot which was used on a tour of a number of theaters in Great Britain by theUniversity of Utah Performing Danscompany,. Detailed information on the stageswas not received in advance, so a simplified plot was sent to each theater alongwith a letter which explained what to do when less equipment was available thanthat listed in the plot. The resident stage managers were instructed to approxi-mate the plot as best they could at their facilities, and not to take anything on theplot too literally. It must be confessed that in spite of these advance instructions,only one theater on the tour had any set-up work done prior to the arrival of thecompany and even then the work was incorrectly done and held to be totallyreestablished. One should not expect much better response from small ormedium-sized theaters in the United States. So why bother with sending lightplots at all? There are some good reasons. occasionally, the plot will be hungcorrectly by the stage crew, even where work has not been done, the residentstage manager may have done some thinking about how to carry out the work,and at least he is forewarned of what to expect when the company arrives, sadly, itmay be the only warning the resident manager has that the company is coming tohis theater! In any case, the company technical director should not assume that hewill arrive to find the plot hung, gelled, and focused and an eager crew awaitinghis first command. Chapter VII gives advice on proper scheduling of time in thetheater.

Safety-during Set-up

Set-up and strike are certainly the most dangerous parts of production and theyinvolve many different safety hazards. falls by individuals from high ladders,scaffolds, catwalks, and grids, falling objectsbattens being dropped toorapidly, dropped instruments and tools, danger of electric shock from malfunc-tioning instruments, improperly wired cables and connectors, danger of burnsfrom hot instruments, bulbs, cuts and scrapes from working with sharp tools,bruises and bumps from working in often poorly lit areas which are cluttered attimes. All of these dangers are further compounded when inexperienced crewmembers are used. All members of the production staff and in particular the stagemanager must insist upon safe work practices and be diligent in looking foi unsafeconditions.

SaYety Rules Which Should Be Enforced

1. Use safety straps on tools used overhead.2. Do not allow inexperienced individuals to operate a fly system without direct

supervision.3. If people feel uncomfortable working on high ladders, do not urge them to

do so.4. Never disconnect or defeat grou4wires on instruments or cables.5. If connectorsitre interchanged on instruments or cables (this often is re-

quired when instruments are loaned to other theaters), double check electricalhookups before plugging the instrument into power.

6. When working on ladders or scaffolds, use safety rails or chains. Never leanout away from the ladder or scaffold.



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117. ever "hot-patch" instruments or cables. If, when power is applied to an

instrument and blown fuse or circuit breaker trip'results, find the cause beforereplugging the instrument or cable which caused the fault.

8. Securely clamp instruments hung over the audience and attached to thebatten by a safety chain or cable. Barndoors or snoots should be chained toinstruments.

9. Securely tape down cables on floors or cover With pieces of carpet which arethen _taped or stapled at the edges.

10. Remember that dancers must often move rapidly through dark wing spacesand behind the cyclorama or back traveler. Be sure to keep these areas clear ofprops, sets, or items which could be run into or tripped over.

11. In modern dance, dancers usually perform barefooted. Check the entirestage carefully, sweep thoroughly, repair or tape splinters, watch for protrudingnail heads, staples, and so on.

12. Never permit open flames or cigarettes on stage.13. Supply and maintain first aid kits, fire extinguishers, and stretcher. Know

where these items are kJpt.

Additional Reading

Ellfeldt, L, and Cames, Edwin. Dance Procruchon Handbook or Later is Too Late. Palo Alto,CA. National Press Books, 1971.

McCandless, S. A Method of Lighting the Stage, 4th ed. New York. Theatre Arts Books, 1958.McCandless, S. A Syllabus of Stage Lighting, 11th ed. New York. Drama Book Specialists,

1964. /Parker, W. 0., and Smith, H. K. Scene Design and Stage Lighting. 3rd ed. Nevi York. Holt

Rinehardt and Winston, Inc., 1974. /,,,,.... Rosenthal, J. andWertenbaker,-1.- The Magic of Light. Boston. Little, Bm and o., 1972.

Seaman, H. D. Essentials of Stage Lighting. Englewood Cliffs, NkPrentice- c., 1972.Warfel, W. B. Handbook of Stage Lighting Graphics. 2nd ed. New. York. Dr,a k Spe-

cialicts, 1974.



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Ch&PIT Vill

Staging the ProTuctionKenneth White

While lighting design and execution is the most important element of technicalproduction for dance, additional knowledge and skills are required to produce ahigh quality dance concert Adequate technical organization and scheduling areprerequisite to properly doing the job, and they must be done by a technicaldirector who understands all aspects of the work. All too often, inexperiencedperforming groups do not provide for adequate time and personnel to carry outthe technical end of production and the quality of the finalproduct suffers greatlyin spite of

Thiswith dsals, an

the hard work which has gone into choreography and rehearsal.er is a step-by-step guideline for technicaPproduction, beginningorganization, and scheduling, moving through set-up and rehear-

g with performance and strike. Those new to technical theater willlikely fin s, concepts, and reference to procedures with which they are notfamiliar, and Chapter VII has been written to fill in these gaps. It is essentially aprimer of dance lighting and technical production, containing specific and de-tailed information on design of dance lighting, lighting equipment, stage ter-minology, and so forth. It is by no meansa complete discourse on the subject and



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the reader desiring additional information is referred to other texts on thesesubjects.

The discussions and suggestions given here are geared toward those personsrelatively inexperienced in technical production and lighting for dance, and tothose who work most often. in small, moderately-equipped facilities. Personsblessed with access to large, well-equipped theaters likely have access to well-trained and ccApetent technicians and designers as well. But even those fortu-nate few wiligWly have occasion to tour to smaller facilities and may find usefulinformation herein.

The design and production of an evening of dance is a complex task involvingthe participation of many people and the coordination of many different ele-ments The sequence of events leading up to the night of performance and thetimely completion of certain tasks can have as great an influence on the success orfailure of the performance as what takes place on stage once the curtain is up. Thissection will provide a chronological guideline for coordination of stage lightingand related technical production requirements. The sequence offered here hasproven useful in practice but is certainly not the only plan which might be used toassure success

The work involved divides itself quite nicely into work done pnor to enteringthe theater (organization and design) and that done in the theater (stage work).

Organization and Design

Organizing technical personnel. The first identifiable step in the technical produc-tion piocess is the choice by the artistic director, choreographer, or pnme moikr ofthe overall production, of a technical director, lighting designer, and stage man-ager In many instances these jobs will melt together and be filled by a singleindividual In large production it is quite desirable to keep these jobs separate anddistinct The description of what each of these.jobs entail varies from place toplace, but as used here is approximated below:

Technical Director. Is ultimately responsible for all aspects of technical produc-tion and may, in turn, appoint lighting designers and stage manager. Heshedevelops the production schedule and sees to it that it is met, makes initialcontacts with theater managers, assures that necessary equipment, props, sets,crew members, and so on are obtained or arranged for.

Stage Manager. As the name implies, the stage manager is in charge of whattakes place backstage, both in set-up and in performance. Heishe directs tfie stagecrew in setting up the stage as specified in the light plot, in writing or recordingCues and other information necessary to running the performance, and calls cuesduring rehearsal and performance. The stage manager is Solely in charge of whattakes place throughout the duration of the performance.

Lighting Designer. The lighting designer Works in collaboration with thechoreographer to develop a lighting scheme-and a light plot. Heishe should bepresent at the cue-setting to adjust lighting levels and to direct the stage managerin the sequence and initiation of cues.

The technical production begins with the technical director who organizes andschedules all technical preparation and time in the theater. The job of the lightingdesigner begins at'about the same time or soon after the choreography develops tothe point that lighting designs can be formulated and a light plot drawn up. Thestage manager's job begins perhaps two to three weeks before the performance.He- must first familiarize himself with the choreography to facilitate cue-callingand, soon after, begins work in the theater setting up the stage equipment


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according to the light plot and directions from the lighting designer andlortechnical director. Once the theater is set up and rehearsals have begun in thetheater, the stage manager's responsibilities and authority are intensified. His jobcontinues through the performances and ends once the stage is struck.

Further information on the duties and interrelationships between the membersof the technical staff and their relationship with choreographers and artisticdirector will be found below.

Collaboration between Lighting Designer and Choreographer

It will be assumAci that the choreographer and designer for a given piece aredifferent people. This is certainly not always the case as many choreographers areadept lighting designers as well. It might nevertheless be informative for thesemulti-talented individuals to consider the two jobs from somewhat differentpoints of view, and they can follow through this section making a few mentalmodifications.

Especially in working together for the first time, choreographer and designer .

need to communicate their philosophies and approach and carefully defineexpec-tations and limits. Otherwise, it may happen that the designer feels so limited byrestrictions imposed on his lighting design by the choreographer that he is deniedany sense of creative flexibility and accomplishment. Conversely, the choreog-rapher may find that his studied and refined dance has been transformed into a"light show" by an overzealous lighting designer. If this early communicationstrongly suggests conflicts or irreconcilable philosophies, the relationship shouldbe terminated and other working partners sought. Far too much is at stake intermsof time, expenseeffort, and emotions to enter into working arrangements .,which are not satisfactory to both parties.

In practice, the designer will find in working with various choreographers thathis job ranges from simply following the detailed plan of those who know exactlywhat they want in lighting (this ill often be the case when a piece is beingremounted) to those who haven't th slightest idea of what they want. Neither ofthese extremes is as enjoyable as the middle ground where true collaboration ispossible. It should be evident that the personal relationship between choreog-rapher and designer is very important. Mutual trust and respect are requisite tosuccessful collaboration, and all parties involved must exert care and discretion inmaintaining the integrity of these relationships.

When designing lighting for a new work, it is vital that the designer getinvolved early in the choreographic process. Communication and collaboration.are concepts which both designer anal choreographer shotild keep in mind fromthe start. Initial conversations between the two may be quite general mood,dynamics, setting, point of view and so on might be laid out by the choreographer,thedesigner might respond in terms of a general color and intensity scheme andMight discuss the possibility of special lighting areas, set pieces, projections, orother special effects. The choreographer should reveal any costume plans to thelighting designer as they are formulated, especially colors to be used in thecostumes Ideally, the process involves a continuing give-and-take, stimulation ofideas, and response to stimuli until a plan emerges which is satisfying to bothindividuals and preferably attributable solely to neither.

These initial ideas and plans may change drastically as work continues and timepasses, but they do serve as a starting poi pt in the process. If special requirementsare foreseen such as a need for sets, dr , projections, or other requirementswhich demand considerable time to produce, the designer should sketch out his



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plan, obtain approval from the choreographer, and promptly begin work. Thedesigner may also perceive the need to obtain special equipment, order unusualcolor media, or initiate other processes which might cause delays (or disasters) ifnot attended to immediately . The designer should call upon the technical directorfor assistance in these matters.

Once the choreographer has had sufficient time to sketch out the piece with thedancers, the designer should be called to a rehearsal to see the general form of thework. He should take notes and begin to formulate a lighting scheme in detail. Asrehearsals progregs, the designer should continue to attend. The more familiar thedesigner can become with the choreography, the more successful his design islikely to be. Discussions with the choreographer about the lighting design shouldalso continue during this formative period.

There are at least two additional reasons for the designer to know the choreog-raphy well. First, later in the process when lighting cues are actually being writtenat the theater, a great deal of time can be saved if the designer knows the sequenceof the dance and already has written cues in at least a descriptive way. Second, itoftens happens that the.lighting designer doubles as the stage manager and isresponsible for calling cues in the running of the show. Calling cues in the courseof a dance can be rather difficult, especially for stage managers who have had littledance experience. Even professional dance stage managers find it desirable to seechoreography a number of times prior to lighting rehearsals and performances.

A single lighting designer can design for an entire performance, but it oftenhappens that a number of designers are employed, especially in programs includ-ing choreography by'various individuals. Such instances require that all thedesigners meet and be in an agreement on a general lighting plot. It is obviouslynot possible in a performance to change much more than a few gels betweennumbers. Slightly more change than this can take place at intermission but eventhis time should be limited to refocusing a few instruments without involvingextensive gel changes or rehanging instruments. When lighting equipment issomew hat limited, it is necessary that compromises be made by the designers anda single flexible general lighting Flat be developed. This is not as limiting as it

sounds, a good palette of gel colors and general washes can allow a good deal ofvariety. Odd color gels are seldom as useful as pAy young designers seem tothink and when used in combination with other colors, result in only slightdifferences of effect. 'kis up to the technical director, working in concert with theartistic director and choreographer, to synthesize the desires and needs of multi-ple designers into a single workable plot and he should settle any disputes whichmight arise between them. When sufficient equipment is not available to satisfy allthe designers, some equitable scheme should be derived to determine use of theequipment at hand. For example, if, after the general plot has been hung, onlytwelve spotlights remain for use as "specials" they should be divided up equallyamong the designers. The same specials can also he used by several designerswith a little planning and perhaps even slight changes in choreographic spacing.In programming a concert, technical requirements should always enter intodecisions on the order of dances in the concert. When drastic changes in lightingor sets are necessary between two pieces, these must be separated by an intermis-sion to permit time for such changes.

Theater Inventory

Before the final light plot can be devised, it is necessary to take inventory of thetheater at which the production is to take place. It makes little sense to send a plot



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to a theater calling for instruments which they do not haVe or which cannot beobtained. It is also unfortunate to use only a small part of the equipment availableat a well-equipped theater. If the theater is nearby, a visit by the technical directoris indicated. He should talk to the theater manager; make a list of usable instru-ments (he should not assume that every instrument hesees works or is necessarilyavailable for use), get rough dimensions, count up circuits and dimmers, and, in ._short, find out all he can. He should tell the resident stage manager w at istechnically being planned for the concert. The resident stage manager may alsohave important information concerning equipment, crew, scheduling problems,and so on.

If a visit to the theater is impractical, a technical questionnaire form will need tobe sent out (well in advance!). This questionnaire should include questions cover-ing everything of importance to the production. In sending those out, one shouldbe cognizant of the theater and community to be visited. A small-town elementaryschool performing space may not be graced with &technician who can even makesense of a technical questionnaire using highly technical terms or stage jargon.Large theaters often have already prepared very detailed descriptions of the4facility and equipment lists, no more than a phone call or letter may be required inthese instances to obtain the desired information.

The Light Plot

Once the designer is confident of his knowledge of the choreography and thechoreographer's wislies and has a list of the lighting equipment available beforehim, a fir Ail light plot can be drawn up. The purpose of a light plot is to convey allthe necesiary information to the stage crew for hanging, gelling, patching, andfocusing of the lighting equipment. When the plot is sent to the theater inadvance, it is expected that much of the set-up workcan be completed before thelighting designer and stage manager arrive. Final focusing and adjustments canthen be quickly completed, before cue setting begins. Sadly, things seldomhappen so smoothly, and the company technical crew normally plans to enter anuntouched stage and work alongside the resident crew until the equipment is setup Nevertheless, for touring companies, it is vital that the plot be sent to thetheater well in advance of the performance date, particularly if additional equip-ment, color media, or other technical needs must be obtained of attended to bythe hosting theater.

Another very important function of the light plot is maintenance of a record ofthe lighting for future productions of a dance. It is also helpful in this regard to filecue sheets and the stage Manager's notes along with the plot.(See Chapter VI formore information on light plots.)

Stage Work

In tnany instances, dance concerts are pefformed ina studio theater or in a smalltheater adjacent to rehearsal studios.

Mounting a concert on "home turf" is certfinly the easiest situation encoun-tered since a good measure of control can be exerted over schedule and personnel.The "touring" situation is somewhat more complicated, whether the "company"is traveling across the street or across the country for its performance. In theprocedural guideline which follows it will be' assumed that the performance isbeing 'held at another theater since this situation is the most difficult. Besides,almost any performing group, whether student or professional, aspires to tour


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Afid once a'group has learned to prOduce a concert on the road, setting up atseems simple.

Scheduling in the Theater

One of the difficult aspects of teetnical production for the inexperienced direc-tdr and the aspect whiclmftgAleads to disaster when done improperly is schedul-ing time and personnel.NftWpoorly produced performance, you might hear thetechnical director saying, "Everything was going along fine until . . . (here fill in


any problem you can think of) . . . put us way behind schedule, so we didn't havetime for our dress rehearsal. And besides, we were short-handed on crew, and

The first important rule of schecl me in the theater is expect the unex-pected and allow some time/or it. seco d rule is plan aheadknow as muchas possible about the situation y ou'r entering before you arrive at the theater. Ifthe night before the performance a lay which uses a large setds being performedon the stage, ybu should know ab it. One obviousISt can't begin rehearsrals or

,set up before the set is struck follo mg the previous performance. In this instance(which one would hope could be avoided by better scheduling); one Must planupon around-the-clock work by a large crew. If the theater is clear for a weekbefore performance night anclihere is no charge for the space or the crew (as isoften the case in high school or even college theaters), one siduld plan to use thewhole week for get-up avid rehearsals. The major tasks to be scheduled during thisweek are set-up cue-setting, tech cal rehearsal(s), dress rehearsal, perfor-mance, and st ri


The first step in set-up is referred to as load-in wherein all equipment broughtby the performing company is4rought into the stage area. Professional touringcompanies usually require the hosting theater to provide crew for this task, butthis is usually' appropriate only ih the profess)onal theater. When the distancetraveled to the theater or performing ,sNice is more than a few miles, costumes,props, and technical equipment should be carefully packed and a manifest shouldbe kept as fo the contents of each trunk or showcase. Responsibility for everytrunk should be assigned to members of the company. Dancers are often respon-sible for packing costumes, while technical trunks are the responsibility of thetechnical director. Trunks should be packed according to the manifest, as thisgreatly decreases the chance of leaving items behind.

If the amount of baggage brought is extensive, one shOuld consult with themanager of the facility about storage space. Costumes are usually taken directly tothe dressing.rooms, while technical items are kept backstage or in a nearby storagearearele these items are sorted out, the company's technical director or stagemanager wilkant to talk with the theater or facility manager to double check theschedure7rid to introduce himself. Personal relationships w itti the person incharge of the stage and any crew the theater is supplying are very important. Thecompany stage manager must be ever charming and tactful, at the same time, hemust know when to be firm in his demands. It sometimes happens that residentcrews are lazy and will do aslittle as possible, wishing to get touring groups in andout with minimal fuss. They have even beerfknow n to tell touring companies thfrscertain changes in lighting or other technical aspects are flatly mpossible. Theexperienced stage manager knows how to read through t s ploy and, still




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tactfully, to ins n having demands met. In most instances, however, oneencounters pe are helpful and who genuinely care about the quality ofthe performa , too, it is important to be4swnsive and thoughtful indealings ith the resident crew. Disasters await companies whose membersalienatelk resident stage manager or crew.

The touring company has every right to expect a deal stage upon arrival andshould, in any case, have specified such in their agreement. Not only should thestage be clear of sets from previousPerforthances, it should also be clean and thestage floor should have been carefully checked for splinters, cracks,*truclingnails or staples, or any other items which might endanger dancers' feet. Repairs,whether temporary or permanent, shbuld be insisted upon. When a stage isencountered which is not clear, the choices are to demand that the resident stagemanager rectify the problem as quickly as possible or to pitch in with all avaiial?lehelp and clear it himself. The latter may be as satisfying emotionally, but itcertainly is a more f3ractical and expedient approach.


Once the stage is clear, the hanging of instruments may begin. The size of thisjob and the time required to do it depend upon the complexity of ttie plot, theconfiguration of instruments as encountered, the number of crew members andtheirdegree of experience, and the ability of the company stage manager to directthe work efficiently. On the average, about eight hours should be allowed for thispurpose. The actual time will vary either way, according to the above-mentionedfactors. The direction offered by the company stage manager deserves specialmention since it is perhaps the most important determinant of time required notonly for hanging but for all work which takes place in the theater. Even aninexperienced crew can be used efficiently when directions are clear and prompt.All too often it happens that crew members end up sta ing around not knowingwhat they-should do while thq stage manager is fra tically working on one ormore details of set-up. The experienced stage mans er learns to delegate workand get the most out of hi.4 crew. He is also frequently called upon to makeimportant decisions when problems arise. No two theaters are the same andset-up never goes exactly as envisioned. Compromises must often be machcertain, instruments called for in the light plot may have to be sacrificed, a lack ofcircuits may require an alternate patching, overhead electric battens iiray tfot bespaced ideally, guch problems require quick decisions, and errors can be very

.costly in terms of lost time.On a stage having a fly system, hanging begins by lowering the electrical

battens. Unless one is quite experienced with fly systems, one should not do thisby oneself but request the help of the resident crew. The battens should bebrought to about waist level. The stage manager may then lay out the lightinginstrument on the floor directly under the point on the batten where he wishesthem hung or may mark the position in some other way. The instruments are thensecurely tightened using the "C"-clamp or whatever clamping system isprovided.

Connecting and l'atching

Lighting instruments are next plugged into electrical circuits. In general, in-struments are pluggedinto the nearest available outlet on the batten. A conijiletecircuit diagram is seldom.received prior to entering the stage and circuit numbers

t. 0

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are almost never included in light plots. Circuiting can therefore be a bit tricky andtrial-and-error must sometimes be used to produce a satisfactory hookup. Instages having patch panels and many circuits on each batten, hookup is fairlyarbitrary, a record should be kept of instruments and circuit numbers to facilitatepatching later on. When few circuits are available, instruments which worktogether (such as Fresnels used in an overhead cool wash) should be ganged intothe same circuit using a "twofer" or "Y" connector. One caution: never "hot-patch" instruments, i.e., do not plug an instrument into an energized circuit. Thiscan result in arcing electricity as the plug slides into the socket and is thus hard onconnectors and reduces the life of lamps as well. One should also watch carefullyfqr fray ea cords, loose connectors, damaged cables, and the like, and these shouldbe repaired before power is applied.

Patching refers to the way in which the circuits are connected electrically to thedimmers. Depending upon the type of dimmer system in the theater, patchingranges from arbitrary to very important in terms of ease of operation of thedimmer board. On old manual transformer type boards -it is important thatpatching be such that dimmers that are used together be placed adjacent to oneanother so that a single individual can operate them. Thialso allows for mechan-ical mastering of sets of dimmers. On modern, electronic dimming systems,whether multi-scene preset boards or the recently developed memory boards,patching order makes little difference if the stage manager has a listing and can callfor the dimmers he wants brought up: Patching need not be completed im-mediately after circuiting the instruments if any given instrument can be ener-gized quickly for focusing, but, it is often more efficient to patch before beginning

-.the focusing procedure than waiting until afterwards.


When all instruments are hung and circuited, the specified gel is placed in aframe and the w hole mounted in each instrument. Gel (or more properly thesedays "color media") should be cut exactly the size of the holder frame, usingscissors, a matte knife, or a paper cutter. Gels cut too large or too small can be veryannoying, and the savings effected by squeezing one more piece out of a sheet issimply not worth the hassle of having to tape the edges of a slightly too small gelinto the frame. In an emergency, acetate or mylar base color media can be repairedor pieced together using clear tape. If barn-doors, or snoots, or gobos are re-quired, they should also be mounted at this time. The battens may then be flc410preparatory to focusing. In theaters having stationary (or dead-hung) electricalbOtens, it may be simpler to hang, connect, gel, and sequentially focus eachinstrument so that a single trip up the ladder or scaffold will suffice for eachinstrument.


The term focusing really refers tq two different operations on the lightinginstruments. One operation is aiming the beam of light to a specified area of thestage. This is effected by rotating the yoke of the instrument with respect to the"C" clamp, by tilting the housing of the instrument with respect to the yoke, or, inextreme:cases, by repositioning the clamp of the batten. The second operation offocusing is the adjustment of the optics of the lighting instrurnsWto change thesize, shape, and quality of the beam. In focusing an ellipsoidal spciflight, the lensmay be slid away from or toward the lamp to "sharpen" or "blur- the edges of the



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Wearn and also to alter the field intensity gradient somew hat. The shutters may beused to change the shape of the beam or an iris may be used to decrease thediameter of the beam.

In the case of the Fresnel instrument, altering the distance between the lens andthe lamp results in drastic changes in the size (and therefore the intensity) of thebeam. The beam may thus be changed from "spot" to "full-flood", dependingupon the use to which it is to be put. When an array of Fresnels is used to create aneven wash of a single color, the lens of each Fresnel is placed in flood position.When used singlras a "special", the spot position would probably be favored.

Focusing-is propey done from atop a ladder or scaffold. The battens must betrimmed at the height at which they will be used. Raising or lowering the battenfrom the focusing position would result in increased or decreasedarea of illumina-tion, respectively. The trim height must be marked or recorded in some way sothat this exact height can be regained should it be necessary to lower the batten foradjustments, re-lamping, re-circuiting, or other changes. An efficient way tofocus is for the stage manager to direct from the stage the technician, doing thefocusing. He tells the technician just where to aim the beam and requests anychanges in size, shape, or quality of the beam.

Check-out and Experimentation

The plot has now been completely hung, gelled, and focused, the designer andstage manager will now want to look at all the lights working together and explorevariations in color and intensity levels. The 'designer now has first opportunity totest the plot, the media colors he has chosen, and the position of lighting instru-ments. The choreographer should also be called in to c eck the position ofspecials, to make sure their position fits the choreograp . A need for someadjustment, or minor changes will likely be distovered in is process, as well asany problems with light0g instruments, dimmers, or other technical problems. Itis helpful and time-savingto make these changes before the arrival of dancers andadditional crew for the cue-setting. Situations where a number of people arestanding around waiting with nothing to do should always be avoided in the .theater. Not only are such delays unprofessional, they quickly make a shambles ofschedules. When this happens, students and amateur performers quickly per-ceive that schedules are meaningless. The stage manager has a real responsibilityto keep wasted time to a minimum, especially when large casts are involved. Thebest way to stay on schedule is to make a reasonable schedule in the first place. Thehour for final adjustment and check-out of equipment before arrival of the cast forcue-setting is very important. Even if no problems have arisen and this extra timeis not needed, an hour's breathing space doesn't hurt unless the schedule isextremely tight.


Cue-setting is the process of creating and recording all information necessary tothe running of the show. It includes all dimmer settipgs and changes, the opera-tion of curtains and drops, initiation of sound and sound intensity levels, andsoon. Present at cue-setting should be the stage manager, the choreographer orartistic director, the lighting designer, as many dancers (in costume) as arenecessary to walk through the choreography (to be safe, require that all dancersare present), and sufficient crew for operating the light board and recording cues.In practice, the stage manager, choreographer, and lighting designer will take a



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position in the house. The stage manager will be in communication with the boardoperators and other crew members, the-choreographer will direct the dancers, andthe lighting designer w ill work with the stage manager in setting light levels.

.... From this point on and through all subsequent rehearsals and performances,the stage manager isin charge of what takes place. This is not to say that he is nottaking direction from the artistic director, the lighting designer, the technicaldirector, but control must issue from a single voice or confusion will reign.

Where possible, cue-setting should follow the order of the concert. Start at thebeginningthe house lights are on, the curtain is closed. One should step throughevery change vy hich re ires action by any person. Call this change a cue, give it anumber, deterinine th point of initiation of this cue, and also define aWarningpoint for the cue. T first change which begins a concert is usually to dim thehouse lights to about half intensity, then, after a suitable pause, take them outcompletely The order of curtain opening, start' g sound, and the first light-cue isquite variable If the curtain opens on a lit stage call this first light level a "preset"


and number each change thereafter sequentifilly While the board crew need .record only the cue number and dimmer settings, the stage manager must wnte agood deal of additional information on his cue s }eets. Not only will he direct thelight board crew but also a sound technician, curtain puller, fly man, and other '''stage lands, as well as see to the performers being warned and ready at thebeginning pf each dance He must know when to vy am his crew members that acue is abaft to begmeand must know the exact moment when it should beinitiated Calling dance cues can be considerably more difficult than calling cues ina play The w ntten script may be used in a play and "word" cues relied upon. Indance, "movement" cues are normally used. For the stage manager who has nothimself had dance training or extensive experience, this can be tnckly. ,Thechoreographer may inform the stage manager tint a cue should begin, "just afterthe entrechat but certainly before the rand de jambe". This again points out the needfor the stage manager to be familiar with the choreography At this point in timehe should have attended several rehearsals of each piece on the concert.

In his notes, the stage manager must record a description that is sufficient toallow recognition of the movement leading to the beginning of the cue, so it isimportant in the cue-setting procedure that this information be recorded as well asthe technical details of the cues themselves. The choreographer can help himgreatly in this regard and it is also helpful here to have all dancers present andhave them run through sections leading up to a cue.

In setting dimmer levels, the lighting designer should have final say. Theprocess of setting levels, of getting just the right balance between warm and coolwashes, the proper intensity on side lights and front-of-house lights, c betedious and sometimes frustrating. It is important that distractions and the en-eral noise-confusion level be kept down dunng this process Dangers shout beinstructed to stay very quiet and to stay nearby so that they can be called to thestage quickly w hen it is time to light the piece they are in . One should not try to set 1sound levels while setting lighting cues. Take some time after completion of lightcues to run through portions of each sound track and record intensity levels.

Cue-setting is often a tense and anxious time. Those in charge must strive toproject a calm and controlled demeanor and should expect the same from per-formers and crew.

Fox new pieces which have never been lit, allow at least an hour for cue-setting.For pieces which are being remounted, one should probably allow a half hour.

. -When time for changeover from one piece to the next is considered, it may be



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expected that cue setting for an average one-and-a-half hotr show will take atleast four hours!


Technical Rehearsal

\frt.thelechnical rehearsal, the Major elements of o uction the choreog-raphy,

, .

the lighting, and the sound come t ether for the first time, The first ,technical rehearsal is bound to ave problems. Indeed, part of its purpose is to1

discover and resolve problems. t offers practice for the dancers to move in thelights, perhaps on a new stage, or the crew to learn their various tasks, and itprovides an opportunity for the designer to really see, for the first time, how wellhis scheme works.

Everyone directly.involved in the performance must be present atthe technicalrehearsal. Dancers should be in costume or at least partial costume so that colorscan *assessed (they need not be in stage makeup). All crew running the lightboard and sound must be present (curtain pullers are optional. at this point),choreographer(s) and lighting designer(s) must be present in the audience, andshould have either headset communication with the stage manager (who shouldbe.backstage) or should take detailed notes of problems, corrections, and changes.The technical rehearsal cal run with starts and stops and restarts, but it shouldbe run in program order, s

te technical changeover is dependent upon the order

of the pieces. The stage manager should be paying attention to changeover timebetween pieces, but should not yet expect things to run "up to speed". Dancerswill be working out spacing, entrances and exits, crossovers, costume and prop-erty placement backstage, and so on.

In calling cues, the stage manager should use a consistent voice cue system tocommunicate with the crew. He might say, "Warning on cue 2", followed by"Cue 2, go". The crew should be instructed never to make any change untilhearing the word "Go".

This is usually a trying time for the stage manager. A great deal of information isflowing his way and problems are springing up right and left. There is generallynot time for him to proc(ss all this information and act upon it so that a piece runsperfectly the first time (unless the lighting is extremely simple). Cu, #4 may becalled correctly but it doesn't come up or comes up incorrectly because of anoperator error. While Cue #4 is being "fixed", cue #5 is missed altogether. Thestage manager then calls #6 at the proper time but the board operators areconfused because #5 has been skipped. Meanwhile, the lighting designer israttling the stage manager's headset with "What the is going on backthere?!!?" and the choreographer is complaining because the upstage specialdidn't come on, the board operators are all asking questions at once . . .

At this point, the inexperienced stage manager often erupts with anger or tearsand threatens to walk out altogether. The experienced stage manager stops thetape and the dance, walks onto the stage and in a calrr.voice says, "I'm sorry,we're having some small problemswe'll start again from the topplease saveyour comments until after the run. Thank you very much". It is important that thestage manager not take criticism and corrections personally. All errors and prob-

` lems must be pointed out by the lighting designer and choreographer to assurethat these problems will not recur. It is equally important that criticism, andcorrection be done kindly arid considerately.

A short meeting should always follow the technical rehearsal so that problemscan be aired and solutions proposed. Changes in cues can be written in and

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necessary corrections made t'o miswritten cues. The lighting designer might feelthat a cue is too dark and wish to rewrite the cue to brighten it up a bit. Some cuesmight be deleted or new cues inserted. Some changes in the plot might berequestedthe position of a special changed, or a different tint of blue gel in theside - lights indicated, and so forth Major changes should not be undertaken,however, unless absolutely necessary . Depending upon how well the first techni-cal rehearsal went, a second (or even third) run might be indicated pnor to thedress rehearsal.

Dress Rehearsal/Performance

Dress rehearsal and performance are grouped together because the dress re-hearsal is simply a performance without an audience. It should be run the same asa performance in every other detail. dancers should be in full costume andmakeup, then performance should be run in proper order with curtains and bows,the entire program should be run "up to speed" with pause between pieces andintermissions of the same duration as planned for in the concert. Call times for thedress rehearsal for dancers and crew should be the same as they will be onopening night (It is preferable to hold the dress rehearsal the night beforeopening night and to have no other rehearsal scheduled in the theater on that day.However, it is sometimes necessary to hold the dress rehearsal a few hours beforethe opening performance or a few hours after a technical rehearsal when time islimited )

A sign-in board should be posted for crew and dancers to assure that the entirecast is present well in advance of curtain time. Dancers should be required toarrive as much as three hours prior to curtain time to attend warmup, applymakeup, and get into costume They should then wait in adjoining dressingrooms or green room until called by the stage manager

Crew members shouldarrive as much as an hour prior to curtain time. After thedancers' warmup, which is usually held on stage, the stage should be swept anddamp mopped. A dimmer instrument,check must then be done by the stagemanager, all dimmers run up one at a time, sequentially, to assure properoperation of dimmers and lamps. At no later than one-half hour before perfor-mance, the main curtain should be closed and the house opened, the house is notto be opened by the house mana0r, however, until word has been received fromthe stage manager that he is ready Once the house is open, the curtain shouldnever be "cut" by anyone, that is, no one should pass through the curtain openingor between the curtain and proscenium. It is traditional that performers shouldnot be seen by the audience prior to raising the curtain, nor the cast permitted toenter the house to w atch pieces in w hich they are not performing, especially whenin costume or stage makeup The technical crew likewise should not be seen bythe audience, even though their presence might be inconspicuous.

It is not unusual to wait five minutes or so past curtain time to begin, especiallyif people are waiting for tickets in the lobby. Longer waits than this should beavoided The audience is warned that ,the performance is about to begin bylowering the house lights to a noticeable extent, leaving the house lights at thislevel for perhaps thirty seconds so that the last few people who have entered canfind their seats The house entrances should then be sealed during the firstoffering Latecomers can be seated after the first curtain closing when house lightsare again brought up. Between dances, house lights need to be brought upsufficiently to a level that programs can be comfortably read.


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During the running of the show, it must be remembered that the stage manageris solely in charge of calling cues. He should be backstage, for this purpose andcommunicate with the board operators via headset. This is preferable to being insome remote lighting booth, as it permits ready communication with the per-formers and quick recognition of unexpected problems of any nature backstage.Extraneous persons should never be permitted backstage during a performance.

With a little practice and after the show has been rehearsed a few times, cuesusually go quite smoothly, but on opening night, there is often one glaringexceptionbow light cues. Unless carefully recorded and practiced with danc-ers ahead of time, bow cues will not go smoothly. Botched bow s take the polishoff an otherwise good performance and can be quite embarrassing for the per-formers. Even when rehearsed, bow cues can be difficult for the stage manager tocall, depending.on audience response. When struggling with the question ofwhether to bring up the lights or the curtain for one more bow, it is well toremember that one too few is better than one too many. Don't "milk" the audiencefor applause.

Another difficult decision for stage manager, which one would hope wouldhappen very rarely', is s hether a problem is serious enough to w arrant closing thecurtain on a piece or even cancelling the remainder of a performance. Certainsituations clearly require immediate closing of the curtain. a dabcer injured onstage and unable to come off, any backstage fire (also lower asbestos curtain), aninstrument or other object fallen on the stage or about to fall, objects being throw nonstage by an unruly audience, or any other situation which poses imminentchthger to performers, crew, or audience,


The final task in the theater is the strike The first and most important rule of thestrike is to return the stage to as good or better shape than it was upon arrivalTake everything brought with you Discard any items for which you have nofurther use, but leave nothing behind The care and speed with which strike iscarried out can have much bearing on the reception one will receive from theresident stage manager should one return to that stage.

Strike should beglimmediately after the final performance, w hale the crew isstill at hand. Action is sometimes delayed a bit by well-wishers who comebackstage after the performance, if this practice is permitted One must be consid-erate of these people, they are backstage because they liked the performance and

/44. want to tell the company so Do not begin to lower battens over the heads of agroup of people' Give them a few minutes and then ask that the stage be clearedbefore beginning the strike Depending upon the -wishes of the resident stagemanager, strike may vary from pulling the gels to completely stripping theelectrics of instruments. As company stage managery ou should accede to theresident manager at this point and allow him to direct the work', especially if hiscrew is doing most of it.

One should count all equipment and tools which have been brought to thetheater (this is simpler if everything has been ye-marked with paint or coloredtape) Pack items in their proper trunk and load them out And finally, thank theresident stage manager and crew (even if it's not heartfelt) and tell them you hopeyou can come back



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ChapteT VII1111

Publicizing the EventLee Anne Hartley




Z--... to

In terms of priorities, the need for publicity is often treated as anafterthought.However, it is an integral part of bringing about a successful dance event and thewhole performance will suffer if the publicity is too little or too late.

First, publicity is needed to provide information about the production, sincewithout it, no one will attend. It is disheartening, to say the least, to perform for asmall house because a conceithas not been well-publicized. Providing specific,accurate information is essential. Incorrect information creates confusion andfrustration in potential audience members who, as a consequence, may arrive at aconcert at the wrong place oriat the wrong time.

Second, publicity functions as a form of salesmanship. People are not likely toattend an event if it does not sound appealing. To be effective, publicity needs tobe used to make an event seem exciting, intriguing, interesting, or beneficial insome way. ,

Instead of advertising dance events in a piecemeal manner, an overall publicityplan that can stimulate audience growth over an extende period of time can be




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used as a form of market development. The intention of this chapter is to provideinformation that will help develop an effective system for pUblicizing concerts,workshops, and other dance events. In general, one should look at forms ofadvertising in terms of what will give a dance event the most exposure, at the mostopportune time, at the highest quality, and for the least cost.

To assist the publicity director in organizing his plans concisely, the followingtopics will be addressed:forms of advertising;deadlinesmaking a realistic schedule;planning a budget;personal relations with business associates.Much of the information presented here may seem blatantly obvious but it is

included because many mistakes have been made by overlooking sow of thesepoints. It is hoped that this information will help the reader to develop a generalsense about how to use publicity to the best advantage and how to avoid costlyerrors in terms of both time and money.

Forms of Advertising

Forms of publicity that may be used for dance are: posters; flyers and brochures;articles for local newspapers; special newsletters, arts bulletins, and events calen-dars; radio-TV advertising, printed programs, and special media advertising.Posters

Displaying posters is a popular way to advertise dance concerts. When a posteris used for publicity purposes, one needs to decide what information to include onthe, poster, how to design the poster, and where and when posters will bedisplayed,The information that should be included is what, who, where, when, and how.

First, what is it? In this example, it is a dance concert. Second, who is performingand sponsoring this concert? The performing group or individual performingartist needs to be stated. Often, sponsors require that their name be stated on allforms of publicity used to advertise an event they sponsor. This should bechecked before any publicity information is released. Third, state where theconcert is taking place Fourth, state when the concert is happening including boththe dates and times of the concert. Be sure the date includes the year. It isimpossible to keep an accurate file of past activities when the years that specificevents took place are omitted from publicity and program materials. Files of thisnature are very important when conducting historical research. How refers towhere tickets are sold and the price of admission for all groups (students, generaladmission, senior citizens, and so forth). Finally, a phone number or businessaddress where further information can be obtained may need to be listed.

There are several importantcfactors to consider when designing a postei. First itshould be designed to look like a dance poster. This may seem too obvious tomention but, too often, dance posters are designed in such a way that it is difficultto tell that the poster is actually advertising a dance event. Photographs andgraphic designs may be used. Designs are most effective and functional whenthey are simple and clear. If people must approach the poster closely to read it'they may not make the effort.

Second, the poster should be interesting to look at. It needs to be eye-catching.Bright colors with strong contrasts of intensity help attract the eye. Often a78


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Potential audience member will judge how interesting a concert will be in terms ofhow interesting the poster is.

Third; consider the best size for the poster. Where will the poster be displayed?How well will it be seen? Are there size regulations in places where the posterswill be displayed? Find out the answers to these questions before determining theposter size. fir

Finally, be sure the information is arranged in a format that is easy to read. Makeit as simple as possible for people to get the necessary information from the poster.

In summary, the following lquestions should be addressed when designing aposter.

does it look like a dance poster?is it interesting and aesthetically pleasing to look at?is the poster the proper size for the loca ns where it will be displayed?is the esiptial information complete a d correct?is the information on the poster easy to adzOnce the posters have been designed and printed, they are ready to be dis-

played. Before plastering posters anywhere, it is essential to know where postersare permitted. Certain places have special regulations. For example, most univer-sities require that all posters be stamped for approval before they can be dis-played. It is wise to check in advance and make a list of places where posters can,and will be hung. In theory, posters should be placed where the largest number ofpeople circulate who potentially have a desire to see a dance concert. Somesuggestions are schools, local businesses, shopping malls, university areas, res-taurants, community dance studios, record-music shops, theaters, and museumand library bulletin boards.

To use advertising media effectively, it is essential to determine the opportunetinv to release publicity materials. The best time to display posters is usually threeweeks before a concert and again at the beginning of the last week before aconcert. Avoid putting up too many posters too soon or too few too late. In usingany medium of publicity, one should be building a momentum of interest thatpeaks at the time of the actual dance event.

Flyers and Brochures

Using flyers and brochures is a popular way to provide general informationabout a dance group. Flyers are normally used to advertise a single event andcontain information similar to that on a poster. Brochures are more extensive thanflyers and are generally used to secure bookings for concert performances orlecture-demonstrations, workshops, and'or master classes of a towing group. Abrochure is designed to give a pleasing presentation of what the dance group isand what specific services it offers. This information should be arranged in aconcise, interesting, and easy-to-read format. Using photographs within thebrochure design is an excellent way to generate the interest of potential sponsors.

The following information is appropriate for inclusion in such a brochure,depending upon the specific situation:

name of the company or dance group;names of the director and company members with biographical information,where appropriate (credentials create an atmosphere of competency and satisfycuriosity about the dancers);specific offerings by the dance group

concert programpossibly a listing of dancesbrief description of lecture-demonstration, specifying the age group forwhich it has been designed, if appropriate


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- '-types of master clasies availableames of the teachers of these classesfor extended residencies, available workshop activities such as composition

or improvisation classes, and so forth;schedule of fees;dates of availability;name, address, and phone number of contact person.While flyers for erformanceare usually mailed at the same time that posters

are first displayed, b hures are quite another matter. Sponsors booking dancegroups require 5;nonths of advance planning and will need to receive the informa-tion containegin the brochure in ample time to schedule the performance ordance eventlarrange to cover the costs, secure the appropriate facilities, andpublicize t event. These timing factors are essential considerations to keep inmind when scheduling the release of printed publicity materials.

If a brochure or flyer is going to be used for mailing purposes, it needs to bedesigned to fit mailing regulations. Check with the post office to find out aboutthese specifications. If more than two hundred identical flyers are going to bemailed, check with the post office about obtaining a bulk rate mailing permit. Thispermit can be obtained by non-profit tax exempt organizations but there is anannual fee However, this permit can be a good money-saving device when oneconsiders that a letter costs several times that of a piece of bulk mail.

From an economic standpoint, mailings advertisinga specific event or promot-ing a group cannot be sent out indiscriminately. It is obvious that a brochuredesigned to promote a dance group should be distributed to potential sponsors.Actually locating potential sponsors and potential audiences takes a great deal ofwork Developing a mailing list is an important step in locating sponsors and'developing prospective audiences. Often, communities have arts organizationsthat will sell, trade, or give away mailing lists of people and organizations thathave supported the arts in the past. It is well worth the time to investigate thesearts organizations. Further, it is a good idea to keep a list of persons (and theiraddresses) who have attended other dance events that one has sponsored; theseinclude classes, concerts, workshops, lecture-demonstrations, and the like.

Local Newspapers

Submitting press releases to local newspapers is an excellent way to advertiseupcoming events and to give general exposure to a group, especially becausepress releases provide exposure without costing money. A press release is a storythat is of interest to the public, not an advertisem*nt. In working with newspa-pers, ascertain their deadlines well in advance of the publicity campaign. It is alsoof great help to have a contact person on all the newspapers to which pressreleases can be submitted. The first time a press release is given to a newspaper, itis wise either to enclose a cover letter>generally introducing the dance organiza-tion and requesting support or to directly meet and talk with the contact person.

The following information needs to be submitted with the press release:the date when the press release is sent;the organization's name submitting the press release;a contact p*rn and phone number the newspaper can call for further informa-tion;a release date that lets the newspaper know when to print the story.The story itself should include:what the event is;who is performing;the sponsoring organization(s);




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place, dates, and times of the event;choreographer(s) and titles of pieces;

. information about purchasingickets;,440 a phone number or business address for referral for more information.

Other information, such as a-list of future activities or short biographies aboutthe performers or choreographers or other human interest stories can be includedto make the article(s) more appealing. However, essential formation should be

lotstated first. The press release should be kept brief and written so that theinformation is dearly presented and interesting to read. All information should bedouble checked for accuracy and correct spelling of titles and names. The pressrelease should be double-spaced and typed on only one side of a page. Somenewspapers may have specific formats and regulations regarding copy for pressreleases. Find out these requirements in advance. -

In most. communities, it is common practice for the staff of local newspapers,university publications, and local arts bulletins to write feature stories about localart groups and performances. A feature story is a wonderful way to generateinterest in an upcoming event and can be of tremendous help in selling a perfor-mance. However, in order to persuade a newspaper or magazine editor to givespace to such a story, one must begin early and be able to come up with someunusual angle that will capture the interest of the reading populace.

Submitting photographs with a press release is an excellent way to generatefurther interest in a story. However, an artsy photograph printed in a newspapermay come out as a gray blur. Clear, high contrast photographs are needed. Eachphotograph submitted should be properly identified with the name of thechoreographer, the title of the dance, and the names of the dancers,.all correctlyspelled. This information should be typed and then taped on the back of thephotograph. Do not write directly on the back of photographs since such writingcan leave impressions which may make the photograph impossible to print in anewspaper.

As well as press releases, paid advertisem*nts can be submitted to newspapers.To determine how effective a.paid advertisem*nt will be, find out how much thead will cost for the amount of exposure provided, in terms of how large and visiblethe ad will be on the page, where the ad will be printed in the newspaper, and howmany days the ad will run.

The design of an ad is very important. It needs to be eye-catching and appeal-ing. The same basic information included on a.poster (what, who, where, when,and how) should appear in a paid ad. In fact, it is often desirable for reinforcementto use the same design for an ad that is used for a poster advertising the sameevent. Have the ad checked in advance by the newspaper to be sure that it isprintable.

The ad should be sent with the name of the organization submitting the ad, acontact person and phone number, and a release date. Be sure that the cost of thead and a method of payment have been clearly agreed upon. Press releases andpaid ads must be submitted on time. When publicity materials are submitted afterdeadlines, these materials cannot be printed on time, if at all. Find out all dead-lines in advance.

Special Newsletters, Arts Bulletins,and Events Calendars

In every community, there are local newsletters, events calendars, arts bulle-tins, community magazines, university newspapers, and so forth, that printlistings of upcoming events. It is Worth the time to search out these sources. Often



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the listing is free and these bulletins circulate among people who generally havean Interest in the arts and other local activities. Be sure to check deadline dates forsubmitting information about upcoming events and any other regulations regard-ing how this information should be submitted.

Radio-TV Advertising

The Federal Communications Commission requires electronic media to providefree air time for public service announcements. When wishing to advertise aspecific dance event on the air, a public service announcement (PSA) should besent to all area radio stations or at least to those stations that have listeners whowould be interested in knowing about upcoming events.

Radio stations usually read a PSA in a 10-, 20-, 30-, or 60-second time block. Besure to find out what specific time blocks are used before writing a PSA. Someradio stations will rewrite all the PSAs they receive to fit into the style of theirparticular station. However, do not assume this will bedone. It isvery importantto write a PSA with all essential information stated in a concise yet interestingmariner. Keep sentences short. A PSA should be easy to speak and easy tounderstand.

A PSA should be double-spaced and typed on only one side of a page. Thename of the organization submitting the PSA, a contact person and ph nnumber, and a release date should be sent with the PSA. It is advisable t afollow-up call to be sure the PSA was received and that it will betread on the air.

Paid TV advertising is also a way to publicize an upcoming evek. However, toproduce even a 30-second spot can be very expensive. On the other hand, if welldone and aired at the-proper time, a paid TV ad can be an effective means ofadvertising. Paid TV ads are normally used by groups that have establishedreputations in a community over a period of time.


When presenting a dance concert, the following information should be in-cluded in a program:

what the program is (that is, a dance concert);place, complete dates, and times;an order of events including the titles of the dances, choreographers, music andcomposers, costume designers, lighting designers, and names of dancers,program notes (if necessary);intermissions;names of director and technical staff;special thanks to sponsors.Sometimes short biographies about the choreographers are included as added

interest. Printing a list of upcoming dance concerts in a program is a good way toadvertise future events because those who attend the performance are likely toattend other concerts.

As toprogram design, it may again be advantageous to use the same design forthe program, poster, and paid advertisem*nts publicizing theRvent. Sometimes itis even advisable to use the same design to advertise a series of dance eventsover ayear period. This way, the public will begin to associate the specific design withthe specific organization and the events it produces.



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Special Media hdvertisingo,

Dance groups can alsadevise other clever ways to advertise their performances.Some possibilities include lecture-demonstrations in shopping malls several daySin advance of a concert, bumper stickers, postcards,.T- shirts, billboards, and soforth. An idea that advertises a dance group in a unique way will usua y prove tobe beneficial. The public is inundated with advertising to the pdint at a novelapprch invites their attenyon.

Toirummarize, in planning an overall publicity campaign, the fo swing ques-tions should be considered to determine the effective use of 401fivertising media.,

What is the exposure ofed by each form of advertising? Will the forms' ofselected publicity reach the tacget audience?Are the publicitrnaterials, designed in an attention-getting way? Is the public-,

its eye-ca g-Or does it "sail< into the background ?"Is the publ esigned in a way to generate interest in actually attending the

4 dance event? re the beneficial aspects of the dance event well-stated?Is the ihforination accurate? Are all names and titles correctly spelled?To make advertising an effective tool, two other factors need to be considered.

will publicity materials be submitted on time?, have realistic deadlihes,maximum

es-tablished?, what kind of budget has been allocated for publicity?, is aximumexposure going to be achieved with the monies available? These questions will beaddressed in the following two sections.

Deadlines: Making a Realistic Schedi3le .0 y

\ , ce.

It is extremely important to set up realistic deadlines for completion of all w orinvolved in the Preparation bf publicity materials. As stated earlier, oneshauld beable to release publicity information on a time schedule that builds a momentumof interest, climaxingatff time of the actual dance event. This plan cannot beimplementeslif publicit terials are not.prepared well in advance of the actual

*A., date of4he dance event. When publicity is treated as an afterthought, there isusiSally a great deal of confusion, last-minute rushing around, missed deadlines,

, , .and ultimately, spotty use of publicity.

_ It is important to check the time schedules of printers, graphic designers,;photographers, and any other professionals whose services will be used to pro-

(duce publicity materials. These businessesliave other work to do besides prepare,.. a single poster, program, or flyer so that they may not be able to complete a job for

several weeks. A schedule sho414.tie made which allows all-persons and servicesNvolveci in publicity preparation to finish their work well ahead of the releasedate of these publicity materials. When possible, plan extra time in the schedule to

, jr -the event of an emergency.rn'terms of prOducing a poster, the following Steps will need to be scheduled.

0A,,decide what the ,pc ter des'ign twill be' and what specific information will be 4

. .included;' °'e,#. if photographs o by used in the poster design, schedule a photographic

.i., . session early an et a schedule with the photograpfier for viewing the proofsand Printing the selected photographs;


if a graphic.artist is to be used, establisi a de,adline fol. the design and layout ofp_

the poster to be _oompleted;.take the design to a printer who' will ma up a 1)111" or trial poster(

,. ,

4 8 3, 0

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check the trial poster carefully, particularly the printed information, to see that .

. it Is correct in every detail;give instructions for final printing. ,10-- 4 ,

(The poster is now printed and ready for distribution. The above procedure alsoapplies for brochures, flyers, and'rograms that are professionally designed andprinted.)

. oPress releases and public4serviceannouncements should be written in plenty of, time to be submitted according to newspaper and radio-TV deadlines. Once,

again, a reminder: if photographs are to be submitted with press releases, thesephotographs will need to be prepared.according to newspaper standards (clear,high contrast) Tithe should be scheduled if necessary to prepare these photo-graphs so that they can be submitted in time to meet newspaper deadlines.

Below is a standard deadline system for submitting publicity materials. Al-though specific deadlines vary slightly from community to community, thissystem-provides a realistic picture of the type of time budgeting that needs to beplanned. `1. Posters ...'-E

a. PlaR poster design: eight weeks prior to concert. sb. Send poster to printer to make up trial copy: six weeks prior to concert.c. Have printed poster ready for distri utiorr: three weeks prior to concert.

at(This schedule also applies to flyers at are'clesigned and printed. If flyers are'simply typed and mimeographed, they should be prepared, typed, and repro-duced four weeks ahead to be ready for distribution three weeks prior to theperformance.)

2. Newspapersa. Press releases: submit three weeks prior to concert.

4 IntervieW article (feature story). contact arts section of newspaper five or sixweeks prior to concert.

3. Radio-TV PSAs: submit three weeks prior'to concert.4 Magazine article (feature story). contact six weeks prior to publication date. '5 Everits calendars, local bulletins, arts newsletters. submit information four weeks

prior to publication.6. Program ,f, ..\.

da Compile information and design program cover. threeweeks prior to con-cert.

b°. Submit to typist: two weeks prior to concert.c. Print programs: one week prior to concert.


Planning a Budget .

The way in Which publicity can be approached is dependent, in part, on theamount one has to spend on publicity: Usually publicity budgets are small, but alot can be done with very little through careful planning and budgeting. For onesthing, not all farms of piillicity cost money. One does not have to pay for pressreleases and public serviceVtmouncements. Magazine articles and feature storiesrequire obtaining in interview with a contact persoli from the magazine ornewspaper, but they do not cost money. Printing posters, flyers, and programs,and usiA paid ads for.TV, radio, and newspapers do cost money.

When money is spent,,consider exactly what willbe received in relation to theamount spent. Wtiat is The quality? How Much' exposure is provided Whatsegments of the public will be reached by each medium of advertising? Obviously,

'044 t


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one would not want to use an expensive ad in an obscure paper that most of thepublic never reads.

The following services and materials are the kinds of expenses that are generallyincurred in the preparation of publicity materials:

photographer's fee and cost of photographs;graphic artist's4ee for designing posters, flyers, and programs;printer's fee for printing posters, flyers, and programs;typist/typesetter fee for typing program, press releases, PSAs, calendar an-nouncements, cover letters, and so forth;paper, envelopes, postage, and other secretarial supplies for mailings,printing materials for posters, programs, brochurespaper (costs will vary according to weight, type, size, and color of paper)number of copies (usually the more copies that are ordered, the less cost per

copy)types of reproduction

human and mechanicalphotocopymimeographphoto offset or photo engraving (these types of reproduction all vary in cost).

Besides the costs of producing publicity materials, other common expenses, include fees charged for newspaper, radio, and television advertising, and some

kind of travel expense money for those who hang posters.It is important lo do some cbmparative shopping in terms of price estimates

before making any business arrangements. There are also ways to stretch public-ity dollars. For example, if one has a publicity budget for a year to advertise threeconcerts, make a poster-program design that can be used for the entire year,changing the colorahombination for each concert. This way, a gidFlac artist hastobe paid only once for a design that will be used a number of times. Further, onegOod photo session can produce all the prints necessary for posters, press re-le4ses, and so forth for the year. Out of one photographer's fee, one can obtain agreat deal of publicity material. With a limited budget, it may be wise to think interms of these types of money-saving devices.

After decisions have been made regarding the types of publicity to use and costo estimates have been obtained, one should draw up a sample budget. As much as

possible, try to predictall expenses no matter how insignificant.Making a sample budget can save money by allowing one to see where monies

are going and to consider whether these monies are being used effectively. Forexample, by looking at the budget, one might decide that a printed flyer is tooexpensive for the amount of exposure offered and that a paid newspaper adwould be more effective for the cost. This type of budget strategy can stretch asmall publicity budget, making it provide the greateSt amount of effective expo-sure for the least amount of money.

Personal Relitions withBusiness Kssociates

Successful promotion of a dance organization requires more than meeting thepromotion deadlines of the respective agencies and businesses that are helping toproducione's publicity. These agencies and businesses are run by people and it isessential to establish positive working relationships with, these people.

One should always have a contact person in a community or business organiza-tion that one can call. Be sure, also, that these organizations are given a contact



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4 .51=

person within the dance group that they can call. Further, it is essential for a danceorganization to act like a business. Artistic capriciousness creates an atmosphere ofincompetency. It is crucial to define one's needs clearly and specifically and to besure that these agencies and businesses have all the information they need tofunction effectively. A community organization cannot help a dance group unlessit understands, specifically, what the group is requesting.

At the same time, it is important for a dance group to have a good idea of thefunctioning process of these community organizations. Basically, the group needsto establish open lines of communication. Be sure that all commitments made byboth the dance group and the business organization are clearly understood byboth sides.

Always meet deadlines. These organizations have their own deadlines to meet.When a dance group continually turns in printing and putilicity materials late, itencourages the development of non-productive and frustrating relationships.

A personal call or thank-you letter for a job well done creates good community__rapport. Thanking someone for printing a story or reading an announcementrequires little time and goes a long way toward creahng positive relationships thatwill pay off in the future. Once these networks of goodwill have been established,they can do much to help make the job of the publicity manager a pleasure.


Learning to use publicity effectively is a skill one develops out or experienceacquired over a period of time. Basically, for any given dance event, one needs toplan the following:

determine which forms of publicity media are most appropriate to advertise aspecific event;research price estimates for all potential expenses and devise a sample budget,make up a calendar schedule, 'tarefully assigning responsibilities to assure theprompt completion of all publicity materials;distribute these publicity materials at the most opportune time and in the mostopportune places to create interest in the dance event being advertised.A current list of contact persons and phone numbers, a history file containing a

chronological order of previous press releases, posters, programs, and otherpublicity materials, a list of recent costs for services and materials, a list of posterhang-up places, a mailing list, and a file of past budgets to determine the costeffectiveness of certain past publicity strategies are very helpful records to main-tain.

It is important to develop a set of standards for evaluating the effectiveness ofone's publicity techniques. The effectiveness of a given publicity medium cangenerally be determined by evalutiting each form of advertising according towhich gave a dance event the most exposure of the highest quality, at the mostopportune time, for the least cost.

To survive for more than one concert, it isimportant fora dance organization todevelop an audience that will become a permanent source of support. Thisrequires publicity strategies to stimulate the growth of a stable audience over a

-'period of time instead of using publicity to stimulate sporadic, temporaryinterest.This is why it is important to develOp media contacts that can'be used again andagain 'Ultimately, the interest and support of newspaper staffs, printers, spon-sors, and oilier support groups becomes an essential aspect to the survival of adance organization.


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About the Authors

LEE ANNE HARTLEY has taughtdance at the University of Utah, Uni-versity of Arizona, and the Universityof Colorado. She is at present a free-lance teacher and choreographer. c

ELIZABETH R. HAYES, formerly di-rector of the modern dance programaethe University of Utah, is author oftwo previous textbooks, Dance Com-position and Production and Introductionto the Teaching of Dance. Her chapterson costuming for this publicationhave been based upon many years ofexperience in costuming dance per-formances.

JON SCOVILLE, adjunct associate in-structor in charge of music classes inthe Modern Dance Department at theUniversity of Utah, is the musical di-rector, composer, and accompanistfor the Tandy Beal Dance Company.He is also co-author of a book on them-alcing of musical instruments usefulfor dance accompaniment, entitledSound Designs.

KENNETH WHITE was for .severalyears the technical director for theRirie-Woodbury Dance Company and

tecurrently a staff member. in theodern Dance Department at the

University of Utah, serving as instruc-tor for the lighting class and technicaladvisor for dance productions.







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Suggested Listening for Dance

The following list is a selection of music which can be considered for dancescores. It is geared towards the 20th century and thus may be more useful formodern dance than for ballet. As with any list of this nature, it is only a samplingand is far from complete. It's main purpose is to give thechoreographer an idea ofthe wide range of music available. %

MedievallRenaissanceByrd, W.Keyboard MusickCamino de SantiagoDow land, J.Dances for LuteGolden Dance Hits of 1600Archive

AnthologyInstruments of the Middle Ages and

RenaissanceDavid Munrow,Director

-Johrr RenbourneThe Lady and theUnicorn

Machaut, G.=Ballades, Rondeaux,Virelais

'BaroqueAlbinoni, T. Adagio for Strings

and Organ ,-

Bach, J. S.Brandenburg ConcertiGoldberg VariationsInventions, 2 and 3 PartLute MusicSonatasfor Flute and HarpsichordSuites for Cello UnaccompaniedWell-Tempered Clavier

Couperin, F.--.--Pieces de ClavecinFrifiberger, J.Suites de ClavecinHandel, G. F.

Suites for HarpsichordWater Music Suite

Pachelbel, J.KanonScarlatti, D.Sonatas (Keyboard)Telemann, G.

Suite in A for Flute and StringsTrio Sonatas

Vivaldi, A.Concerti for Flute and OrchestraConcerti for OrchestraConcerto in D for Guitar and

OrchestraFour Seasons


ClassicalBeethoven, L.

BagatillesPiano Sonatas

Haydn, F. J.MenuettsSonatas for Piano

RomanticBrahms, J.IntermezziChopin, F.


Schubert, F.String 'Quintet in A

ImpressionistsDebussy, C.


Suite B gamasqueRavels

Pavane pour une infante defuntePiano Music

Satie, E.Piano Music


88 ..


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ModemAppleton, J.World Music TheaterArel, B.Mimiana 1 and 11Ashley, R.She Was a VisitorBarber, S.

Adagio for StringsSummer Music for Woodwitid

QuintetBartok, B.

Concerto for OrchestraMikrokosmos

Mu Sic for Strings Percussion andCelesta

Piano ConcertosBehrman, D.On the Other OceanBerio, L.

CirclesDifferencesOmaggio a JoyceSequenza V, VII

Bernstein, L.Fanc*FreeOn the TownSonata for Clarinet

Boulez, P.Le Marteau Sans MaitrePiz Selon _

Britten, B.NocturnalCarlos, W?

Clockwork OrangeSonic SeasoningsWalter Carlos by RequestWell-Tempered Synthesizer

Cage, J.IndeterminancySonatas and Interludes for Prepared

PianoChihara, P.

Beauty of the RoseBranches

Copland, A..Appalachian SpringDance PanelsRodeo

Cowell, H.Ostinato PianissimoPiano Music

Crumb, G.Ancient Voices of Children_Black AngelsMakrokosmosVoice of the Whale

Davidovsky, M.SynchronismsDockstader, T.

Luna ParkWater Music

Druckman, J.Animus IIISynapse

Erb, D.In No Strange LandFoss, L.

Baroque VariationsCave of the WindsTime Cycle

Gaburo, K.Antifrhony III and IVFat Millie's Lament

Glass, P.Einstein On the BeachNorth Star

Harrison, L.Concerto In SlendroFour Pieces for HarpPacifika RondoSuite for Violin, Piano, and Small

OrchestraHenry, P.Variations for a Door

and a SighHindemith, P.Kleine

Kammermusik No. 2Frovanhess, A.

FirdausiKoke no NiwaOn Enchanted Ground

Ives, C.Calcium Light Night

-Three Place, in New EnglandLigeti, G.AtmospheresLuening, 0.-1Suites for Solo FluteLutoslawaski, W.String QuartetMaxwell Davies, P.Sonata for

Trumpet and Piano,Messiaen, 0.

Merle NoirQuartet for the End of TimeVisions de l'amen

Milhaud, D.Saudades do Brazil.Sonatina for Clarinet and Piano

Mompou, F.Suite CompostelanaMumma, G.

Dresden InterleafMusic from the Venez




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Nancarrow, C.Studies for PlayerPiano

Oliveros, P.Sound PatternsPartch, H.Daphne of the DunesPenderecki, K.

De Natura SonorisThrenody

Ponce, M.=Preludes for GuitarPoulenc, F.Piano MusicProkofiev, S.

Love for Three OrangesSonata for Harp

Reich, S.Come OutMissic for 18 MusiciansMusic for Mallet Instruments,

Voices and OrganRiley, T.

In CRainbow In Curved Air

Schoenberg, A.Piano Music,' Op. ,11, 19, 25

Stockhausen, K.TelanusikStimmungZyklus

Stravinsky, _

Instrumental MinaturesOctet for WindsPiano MusicThree Pieces for Clarinet

Subotnick, M.SidewinderSilver Apples of the MoonTouchWild Bull

Takemitsu, T.QuatrainWaterways

Ussachevsky, V. Piece forTaperecorder


Vaughan WilliamsLark Ascending

Choros, Etudes and Preludes for GuitarPiano Music

Wuorinen, C. Time's EncomiumXenakis, L

AkrataBohor I



JazzAbercrombie, J.CharactersAirtoPromises of the SunArt Ensemble of Chicago

Nice GuysLes Stances a Sophie

Blake, E.-86 Years of Eubie BlakeBley, C.

Genuine Tong FuneralMusique Mechanique

Bley, P.Open, to LoveBlythe, A.

IllusionsIn the Tradition

Braxton, A.Complete BraxtonBurton, G. and Chick Corea'

DuetCrystal Silence

Coleman, 0.Free JazzColtrane, J.CrescentConnors, B.Swimming With A

Hole in My BodyCorea, C. Piano Improvisations,

Vol. 1Davis, M.

King of BlueSketches ofSpain

Dolphy, E.Out To LunchDouble ImageDawnEllington, D.Best ofEvans, B.Peace PieceGarbarek, J.D6Gismonti, E.DancaGoodman, B.Pure GoldJackson, M. G.GiftsJarrett, K.

Arbour ZenaSolo Concerts

Joplin, S.Piano MusicKellaway, R.Come to the MeadowLande, A.

Red LantaEccentricities of Earl DantStory of Baku

Lateef, Y.Gentle GiantMcLaughlin, J.

Birds en FireMy Goals BeyondNatural

Metherley, P.GroupNew Chatauqua


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Mitchell, R.CongliptiousMonk, T.Greatest HitsMotian, P.Le VoyageOregon

Distant HillsMoon and MindMusic from Another Present Era

Phillips, B.Three Day MoonPonty, J. L. Imaginary VoyageRypdal, T.WavesSanta Maria, M.Afro RootsTaylor, C.

ConquistadorSilent Tongues

Towner, R.D ianjSolo

Waller, F.Piano SolosWeather Report

Heavy WeatherMysterious TravellerTale SpinninWeather Report

Weber, E.Colours of ChloeWinter, P.





Miscellaneous and InternationalAnthology of the Music of Black

- AfricaChieftainsVolumes 1-5 (Irish)Willie ColonEl Baquine de

Angelitos Negros (Latin)Eno, B.Music for Airports

(Electronic)Music for Films (Electronic)

Grisman, D. Dan Music(BluegrassiJazz)

Ghosh, J. P.Drums of IndiaJane, J. M.Equinoxe (Electronic)KraftwerkAutobahn (Electronic)Music From the Morning of the World

(Balinese)Music of BulgariaMusic of the Babenzele PigmiesPiazzolla, A. Libertango

(Argentina)Puente, T.Dance Mania (Latin)Rota, N. Music for Amacord and

Other FilmsSchulze, K.Picture Music

(Electronic)Sound Effects Records

_Sousa, J.--P,MarchesUrubambaMusic of the AndesVangelisBeauborgYamaguchi, G.Bell Ringing in an

Empty Sky(Japanese Flute Music)

I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ...· A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (92)

Other Dance PublicationsAvailable from AAHPERD

Sexuality and the DanceA monograph dealing with a variety of perspectives on sexual-ity and the dance. Presents views of the philosopher, therapist,and student of dance. Encourages greater exploration into thedepth and breadth of sexuality and the dance. Covers a varietyof topics, such as, foundations of the dance therapy process,dancing and sexual identity, and sexual response and theGraham contraction. 1980. 32pp. (243-26874)

Aesthetics add DanceA monograph dealing with aesthetics from a broad-based ap-proach to dancer's, dance educators, and to physical educatogconcerned- with the philosophy of sport. Views movement artsand the human body.from an aesthetic standpoint. Some of thetopics covered are the role of the choreographer and teacher inthe aesthetic process, and dance perceived from the audience'sand performer's perspective. 1980. 4Opp. (243-26732) c.

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I. Hayes, Elizabeth R., Ed.; And Others A Guide to pance ... · A Brief History of. 20th Century Costumes. and Settings for Dance. Elizabeth R. Hayes, N. c., On the day that Ispora - [PDF Document] (2024)
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